Article  Video  Webinar 

What Parrots Want: The Importance and Use of Foraging and Environmental Enrichment for Birds

This webinar has been R.A.C.E.-approved for 1 hour of continuing education. Despite parrots being popular pets, much of the information regarding their nutritional and behavioral needs is still unknown. Unlike dogs and cats, most psittacine species are not domesticated and have therefore likely retained most, if not all, of their wild instincts and behavioral needs. In captivity, however, most parrots have little to no opportunity to perform these species-typical behaviors. This will not only reduce their welfare, but can also result in the onset of abnormal repetitive behaviors, including feather damaging behavior, and oral or locomotor stereotypies.

Quiz 

Feather Destructive Behavior in Psittacine Birds Post Test

Categories: Avian, Parrot,
The Feather Destructive Behavior in Psittacine Birds webinar was reviewed and approved by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB) Registry of Approved Continuing Education (R.A.C.E.) program for 1 hour of continuing education, in jurisdictions which recognize AAVSB R.A.C.E. approval….

Article  Video 

The Parrot Brain On Shapes: Similarities with Human Visual Processing

Objects are often not fully visible in everyday life. Human beings are capable of processing the complex visual information related to “incompleteness” because our visual environment is primarily composed of opaque objects that can overlap and partially hide each other. Scientists believe that many nonhuman species are also able to deal with “incompleteness”…

Article  Teaching Module 

Basic Rabbit Care Teaching Module

Welcome to LafeberVet’s Basic Rabbit Care Teaching Module! Upon completion of this learning aid, the participant will have a basic clinical understanding of what defines a rabbit, common rabbit breeds, anatomy and physiology, behavior, restraint and handling, as well as husbandry needs.

Behavior Basics: Clinical Approach to the Rabbit

The approach to a prey species like the rabbit often calls for a profound paradigm shift for clinicians used to dealing only with cats and dogs. Rabbits can stress very easily in a clinical setting and the challenge of managing a small mammal like the rabbit increases exponentially when they are presented for illness or injury.

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Self-Mutilation in Sugar Gliders

Self-mutilation is sometimes observed in isolated sugar gliders or in situations causing social stress. Improper groupings are common in captivity as pet owners often combine a male with one or two females, without realizing that not all individuals get along…

Article 

Wait For It…A Grey Parrot Demonstrates Self-Control

“Griffin”, a grey parrot in Dr. Irene Pepperberg’s animal behavior and avian cognition lab, could wait up to 15 minutes for a better quality reward, even though both treats offered were preferred food items. Griffin displayed delayed gratification for longer than any previously tested avian subject including Goffin’s cockatoos. Fifteen minutes was the longest time evaluated, not necessarily the longest length of time Griffin could wait.

Explore the history of similar research in children and animals as well as the specific results of the study led by Adrienne E. Koepke of Hunter College and Suzanne L. Gray of Harvard University. Also learn more about Dr. Irene Pepperberg and the fascinating work of The Alex Foundation.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Feather Destructive Behavior in Psittacine Birds Webinar

The AAVSB R.A.C.E.-approved webinar “Feather Destructive Behavior in Psittacine Birds” was presented by Lynne Seibert, DVM, MS, PhD, Dipl. American College of Veterinary Behaviorists. View a recording of this web-based seminar, then take the post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: European Hedgehog

The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is one of the most common species seen in wildlife rehabilitation in western Europe. Hedgehogs are potential carriers of zoonotic disease. Ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the most commonly contracted zoonosis of wildlife rehabilitators in the United Kingdom. Other important medical conditions include ectoparasites infestations, gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella enteritidits or coccidiosis as well as bronchopneumonia associated with bacterial and/or lungworm infection.

Use our European hedgehog Information Sheet to review taxonomy, conservation status, physical description, diet and housing needs, anatomy and physiology, preventive care as well as important medical conditions. Login to view information sheet references.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Restraint & Handling of Small Exotic Companion Mammals Webinar

Manual restraint of exotic companion mammals is a challenging but necessary part of veterinary practice. In the recording of this R.A.C.E.-approved webinar, Ms. McClellan reviews the approach to predator and prey species as well as the principles of capture and handling of several species of small exotic companion animals in a hospital setting including from rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas to small rodents, hedgehogs, and sugar gliders.

Article 

Reproductive Emergencies in Birds

Reproductive emergencies are most commonly seen in small psittacine birds like the cockatiel, lovebird and budgerigar parakeet. This article reviews conditions commonly seen on an emergency basis such as dystocia, egg yolk peritonitis, cloacal or oviductal prolapse, and/or chronic egg laying. Pertinent anatomy and physiology as well as case management, including the reproductive history, physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and behavioral modification techniques are also discussed.

Article 

Physical Examination of the Chick

Pediatrics is one of the most fascinating and rewarding fields of avian medicine. The key to hand raising healthy psittacine chicks is a strong preventive medicine program based on sound husbandry practices. Physical examination is an important part of preventive health care.

Article 

Psittacine Behavior, Handling and Restraint

Behavior is the most direct tool a wild bird has to respond to its environment, and it ultimately determines whether it survives and breeds in its natural environment. There are two functional categories of avian behaviors: self-maintenance behaviors and social behaviors.

Article  Product information 

Nutri-Berries and Foraging: A Neuroanatomic Perspective

Foraging for food is a basic behavioral repertoire for birds in the wild. The lack of opportunities for companion birds to engage in this behavior may play an important role in the development of abnormal behaviors. For example, Snyder et al documented that Puerto Rican Amazon parrots spend approximately 4–6 hour per day foraging and that they routinely travel several miles between sites. In contrast, companion birds in our homes like the orange-winged Amazon parrot spend approximately 30–72 minutes per day eating a pelleted diet without traveling, manipulating food items, and not attempting to balance their own diet. It has been suggested…

Article 

Assessing the Sick Lizard

Exotic animal medicine requires a delicate balance between medical concepts true for all living creatures (“one medicine”) and species-specific information and this is true for lizards.

Lizard behavior varies with the species, however the normal lizard tends to be alert, responsive, and curious. Some species, like the bearded dragon and leopard gecko tend to be particularly active and animated while most chameleons are more…

Article 

Assessing the Sick Chelonian

The lethargic, weak chelonian may exhibit a lack of carpal or truncal lift. It may sit flat on the exam table instead of lifting up on all four feet, and it may not be able to retract its head into the shell with the expected degree of strength. It can be challenging to…

Article 

Pain Management in Birds

This brief article was created to serve as a synopsis of LafeberVet’s longer, more detailed “Avian Analgesia” authored by avian veterinarian, Dr. Michelle Hawkins.

Article 

Restraint Collars in Birds: Types of Restraint Collars and Specific Issues with Restraint Collars

Restraint collar devices are also referred to as ‘neck collars’ or ‘safety collars’. The most common restraint collar is the Elizabethan collar (or e-collar). Many different manufacturers sell e-collars and modified e-collars designed for different species and for specific purposes. Restraint collars are widely used to prevent undesirable behaviors and self-injury. Clinically, veterinarians have used restraint collars in birds to prevent self-mutilation or self-trauma and to prevent animals from removing intravenous catheters, bandages, and other external devices.

Article 

The Acclimation Period: Approach to Prey Species

Many exotic animals seen in clinical practice are prey species. In the wild, individuals that appear sick or injured are easy prey for predators, and they may even be segregated or attacked by group members. When faced with the stress of a strange examination room, most prey species will attempt to appear alert and strong as an instinctive survival adaptation.

Article 

Assessing the Sick Snake

Snake behavior will vary with the species, however the normal snake tends to be alert, responsive, and curious. Frequent tongue flicking is a sensory gathering behavior used to deliver scents to the vomeronasal organ. The normal snake is generally active, often coiling or twining its body. This is particularly true for smaller species. Signs of aggression in the snake may include…

Article 

Raising Orphaned Raptors

Imprinting is an important, natural part of a young animal’s development where it learns to recognize its own species. Imprinting utilizes the senses of sight, touch, and sound. Imprinting via sound probably begins in the egg during the pip-to-hatch stage when the parent and chick vocalize back and forth. After hatching, sight becomes an important factor in imprinting as the chick’s visual ability improves. The chick associates the images it sees with the sounds and tactile sensations with which it is already familiar.

It is not enough to prevent imprinting on humans…

Article 

Pain Management in Small Mammals

This brief article was created to serve as a synopsis of LafeberVet’s longer, more detailed “Analgesia in Small Mammals” authored by veterinary anesthesiologist, Dr. Paul Flecknell.

Article 

Five Features of Marsupial Anatomy: With Focus on the Sugar Glider Physical Exam

Free-ranging sugar gliders live in the treetops and glide from tree to tree using their patagium like a kite and their tail as a rudder to control the direction of flight. The patagium is a furred membrane of skin or gliding membrane that stretches between the forelimbs and hind legs. These skin folds are extensions of the lateral body wall. When the glider is at rest, this excess skin appears as a rippled border along the sides. During a glide, the skin spreads out to form a rectangle…

Article 

Grooming Companion Birds: A Review

Grooming in the bird can refer to clipping wing feathers, trimming nails, and smoothing and/or trimming the beak. Grooming can be performed by the veterinarian or an astute, skilled veterinary technician, however before the procedure begins one must always ask should the bird be groomed and should the bird be groomed at my practice?

Client Education Handout 

Rabbit Introductions

Does my rabbit really need a companion? Many experts on house rabbit care agree that most individuals are not meant to live in solitude, away from members of their own kind. This client education handout discusses house rabbit companionship and the challenging process of rabbit introductions.

Client Education Handout 

Aggression in Rabbits

To the uninitiated, rabbits have a reputation for being docile, passive creatures. Any aggressive actions from a house rabbit can be surprising–even alarming–to new owners. In this client education handout, fights between rabbits as well as rabbit aggression towards people are discussed.

Client Education Handout 

Breeder Checklist

How to Question the Source of Your Future Lifelong Companion:

By the time you are ready to select the breeder or shop to purchase your companion parrot, you have hopefully done your homework…

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Lovebird

Lovebirds live in flocks among the woodlands, savannah and forest edges of sub-Saharan Africa and Indian Ocean islands.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Lory and Lorikeet

Lories and lorikeets live in large flocks in the wild.  Depending on the species, lories and lorikeets originate from the southeast Asia archipelago or parts of Australia.  These birds will fly from island to island in search of food. Lories and lorikeets will eat coconuts and grapes and they are considered a pest to farmers.  The nomadic Rainbow lorikeet follows eucalyptus flowers blooming along the Australian coast. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists the conservation status of most lories and lorikeets as “least concern”, although some species are considered vulnerable or “near threatened”. The Red-and-blue lory (Eos histrio), Rimitara lorikeet (Vini kuhlii), and Ultramarine lorikeet (Vini ultramarina) are endangered.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Eclectus Parrot

The Eclectus is a native of Australia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and/or the Solomon Islands. This species has also been introduced to Palau. Eclectus parrots have an extremely large range, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists their conservation status as “least concern”.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Conure

Most conures are found in regions of the Amazon Basin but some species are from the Caribbean islands. Conures are on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) list. These species are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but may become so unless their trade is strictly regulated.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Cockatoo

Cockatoos are medium to large-sized parrots with thick, heavy bills that range from 30-70 cm in length. There are 18 species of cockatoos in 6 genera. The most common pet cockatoos are the umbrella, sulphur-crested, lesser sulphur-crested, and Moluccan cockatoo.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Cockatiel

Cockatiels originate from the non-coastal regions of Australia. The free-ranging population is very large, and the IUCN lists this species’ conservation status of “least concern”. Cockatiels probably represent the smallest of the cockatoos, although there is some controversy surrounding this classification. Cockatiels are common as aviary birds and they make excellent pets.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Canary

Originating from the Canary Islands, the canary’s song captured the attention of Europeans, who started importing these birds in the late 1500’s. Although breeding for desirable traits has produced many variations, the wild canary is a small, green bird. Free-ranging populations are strong and are found in a wide variety of habitats, which is why the canary was placed in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List category of “Least Concern”.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Amazon Parrot

Amazon parrots originate from a large portion of the Amazon Basin in South America although species-specific ranges vary. Habitats range from savannah, palm grove, scrub forest to rainforest. Wild Amazon parrots are incredibly active, foraging and flying in flocks…

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: African Grey Parrot

African grey parrots are among the most familiar of all parrots. Originating from central Africa, many African cities now have feral populations. The Timneh grey parrot is localized to the Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone. Habitats for grey parrots include savannahs, coastal mangroves, woodland and edges of forest clearings. African greys are listed under Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Appendix II, which means these species are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but may become so unless their trade is strictly regulated…

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Behavioral History Form 6

Provided by Dr. Lynne Seibert. board-certified veterinary behaviorist, Download Behavioral History Form 6 PDF

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Behavioral History Form 5

Provided by Dr. Lynne Seibert. board-certified veterinary behaviorist, Download Behavioral History Form 5 PDF.

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Behavioral History Form 2 – Parrots

Provided by behaviorist, Pamela Clark. I have used this behavior consult information form for 10 years, perfecting it along the way. Download Behavioral History Form 2 PDF.

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Behavioral History Form 1

Provided by Dr. Lynne Seibert. board-certified veterinary behaviorist Download Behavioral History Form 1 PDF.

Client Education Handout 

Why Does My Rabbit? House Rabbit Behavior

Why Does My Rabbit? Common house rabbit behavior questions answered.

In many instances, rabbits kept in hutches, pet stores, or laboratories do not receive enough stimulation or physical space to demonstrate their full behavioral repertoire. Owners of house rabbits know these are intelligent creatures with distinct personalities and a range of behaviors. In this educational handout, clients can review normal husbandry, age, and sex-related behavior as well as normal sounds and actions like chewing and digging. The challenges of multi-rabbit households are also discussed.

Client Education Handout 

Training Basic Skills

Many parrots instinctively strive for a position of dominance within their flock (your household). Many of the behavioral problems that can arise from such a situation, may be prevented when…

Client Education Handout 

Signs of Illness in Your Bird

It is a natural instinct for parrots to hide signs of illness. In the wild, this skill serves them well, and in fact, may save their lives…

Client Education Handout 

Parrot Toys & Toy Safety

Parrots are extremely intelligent creatures; and toys are one of the most important items we can purchase for our birds. Many avian behaviorists recommend four types of toys…

Client Education Handout 

Normal Parrot Behavior

Pet bird behavior is complex, and it is crucial that bird owners have a realistic understanding of what to expect from their pets…

Client Education Handout 

Hedgehogs

The African pygmy hedgehog, also known as the 4-toed or white-bellied hedgehog, originates from central Africa.