Form-Questionnaire 

Animal Bite Checklist

Shared by a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, this veterinary hospital animal bite or scratch checklist provides guidance for the individual as well as the supervisor or clinician in charge. There are also recommendations for care of the animal inflicting the bite or scratch.

Article 

Encephalitozoonosis in Pet Rabbits

Neurologic diseases are relatively common in companion rabbits, and recognition of these conditions by the exotic animal clinician is very important. Encephalitozoonosis is endemic in the pet rabbit population worldwide, and is an important cause of neurologic disease in this species.

Article 

Fungal Disease in Avian Patients

Fungi are among the most common causes of infectious disease in captive birds, and fungal diseases can be challenging to diagnose, as well as treat. Because fungi are typically opportunistic, causing non-contagious disease in susceptible individuals, prevention and treatment require an understanding of etiology as well as predisposing factors.

Article 

Avian Chlamydiosis

Psittacosis or ornithosis is caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, an obligate intracellular bacterial infection of birds. Chlamydophila psittaci may be excreted in feces and oculonasal discharge. Chlamydophila is environmentally labile but remains infectious for months in organic debris. Latently infected birds appear healthy but shed the organism intermittently for months to years. Stressors such as breeding, shipping, crowding, or climatic extremes may activate shedding.

Article 

Zoonotic concerns: Psittacosis

Individuals that work or live with birds may be at risk for zoonotic diseases. An average 250 human cases of Chlamydophila psittaci are reported annually in the United States.

Article 

Enterocolitis in Hamsters

Diarrhea is the most common problem in pet hamsters. In a recent survey of two large American commercial breeding facilities, approximately 3% of shipped hamsters develop diarrhea. Diarrhea caused by enterocolitis can occur in hamsters of any age or breed and is commonly known as “wet-tail”. Clinical signs in weanlings usually include diarrhea, anorexia, ruffled hair, dehydration, weight loss, and death. The mortality rate is often highest in…

Article 

Zoonotic Avian Infections

An average 250 human cases of Chlamydophila psittaci are reported annually in the United States. Clinical signs typically follows a 5 to 14 day incubation period. Disease ranges from subclinical to systemic illness with severe pneumonia. Most people demonstrate sudden onset fever, headache, malaise, and myalgia with a non-productive cough that can be accompanied by breathing difficulty and chest tightness. Splenomegaly and…

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Encephalitozoonosis in European Rabbits

Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligatory intracellular microsporidian parasite that can infect a wide range of mammals, including humans. The primary host for E. cuniculi is the rabbit. Infections in rabbits are typically subclinical…

Article 

Mange in Exotic Small Mammals

Most species of mites are host-specific, however take special precautions, such as wearing exam gloves, to minimize the spread of potentially zoonotic pathogens. Humans that become infested with Sarcoptes scabei may develop wheals, vesicles, papules, and intense pruritus. Pet owners, especially children, may become infected with…

Article 

Dermatophytosis in Small Mammals

Although fungal disease is uncommon in small mammals, dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis seen in clinical practice. Despite the low incidence of clinical disease, rodents are common asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes. Fungal pathogens are generally more important for their zoonotic potential. Rodents are frequently asymptomatic carriers of ringworm, and transmission of disease to human caretakers is not uncommon.

Client Education Handout 

Ferrets and the Flu

It’s flu season! Ferrets are susceptible to several strains of human influenza virus, which is spread through the air from coughing, sneezing, and other respiratory secretions. Provided by Dr. Connie Kirk, this client education handout describes the signs of flu in the ferret as well as preventive measures to reduce the risk of illness.

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Salmonellosis in Reptiles

The physical and psychological benefits of pet ownership have been well established, however pet ownership is not without risks such as the potential for transmission of zoonotic disease. Reptiles can carry a number of bacterial, fungal, protozoal, and parasitic pathogens including Salmonella spp. Approximately 6% of human Salmonella spp. infections are acquired from reptiles.

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Tularemia in Rabbits and Rodents

Tularemia is a highly pathogenic disease of animals and humans that has been reported throughout the northern hemisphere including North America, Europe, and Asia. In the United States, naturally occurring infections have been reported in all states except Hawaii.

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Rodents

The physical and psychological benefits of pet ownership have been well established, however close contact with pets is not without risks including the potential for transmission of zoonotic disease. Rodents can carry a number of potential pathogens including lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is found throughout the world in wild rodents. Disease is especially common in…

Article 

Required Reading for Veterinary Staff: Zoonoses

More than 200 diseases are zoonotic or common to animals and humans. Veterinary staff members are continually exposed to animals that potentially carry infectious disease. This risk is an acceptable one as long as the risk is known, understood, and preventive measures are taken. These preventive measures are fairly straightforward and include…

Article 

Salmonellosis in Songbirds – Five Key Facts

It is important for animal health care professionals to recognize the potential hazards of working with passerine birds so that appropriate measures can be taken to minimize the risk of contracting disease. Wild bird isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium may not represent a large zoonotic risk to the general population, however the vast majority of sick and dying songbirds harbor this microbe.

Article 

Are Canada Goose Populations a Public Health Concern?

Unlike many waterfowl species, Canada geese tend to travel further from water to feed. In turn, this allows birds to spread their feces over large areas. While feeding, one Canada goose can produce approximately one dropping per minute. Total daily fecal production may reach approximately 2 pounds or more of waste per goose.

Article  Quiz 

Reptile Awareness Day Quiz

October 21st is Reptile Awareness Day. Although Reptile Awareness Day was founded with the worthy goal of exploring the ecological challenges that reptiles face, celebrate with LafeberVet by taking our quiz that focuses on clinical information. Are you aware of these reptile-centric facts that will benefit you, your staff, and of course your reptile patients?

Client Education Handout 

Psittacosis in Birds & Humans

Psittacosis is an infectious disease of birds and people caused by Chlamydophila psittaci…

Client Education Handout 

Bats and Rabies

A public health guide on bats and rabies by Bat Conservation International.

Client Education Handout 

Avian Influenza

Avian influenza or “bird flu” is a group of viral infections that occur naturally among birds. Some wild birds like…

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Rabies in Terrestrial Small Mammals

All mammals are considered to be susceptible to rabies although susceptibility appears to vary by species and viral variant. Rabies is exceedingly rare among small wild mammals and exotic pets. Among rodents in the United States, rabies is most commonly reported in…