Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Behavioral History Form 2 – Parrots

Provided by behaviorist, Pamela Clark. I have used this behavior consult information form for 10 years, perfecting it along the way. Download Behavioral History Form 2 PDF.

Form-Questionnaire 

Pocket Pet History Form

History and physical examination forms donated by Dr. Tom Tully of Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine. Download Pocket Pet History Form PDF.

Form-Questionnaire 

Ferret History Form

History and physical examination forms donated by Dr. Tom Tully of Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine. Download Ferret History Form PDF.

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian History Form 3

This two-page Avian History Form was shared by Thomas Tully, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice) of Louisiana State University.

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian History Form 2

This one-page Avian History Form was provided by Dr. Tom Tully of Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine.

Form-Questionnaire 

Rabbit History Form

Form donated by Dr. Tom Tully of Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine. Download Rabbit History Form.

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian History Form 5

Avian History Form from the University of Georgia at Athens College of Veterinary Medicine provided by Dr. Heather Barron.

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian History Form 1

Download this avian history form, shared by Dr. Jörg Mayer from the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine.

Form-Questionnaire 

Reptile History Form

Donated by Dr. Tom Tully of Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, download the PDF or DOCX version of this reptile history form to begin a productive conversation in the examination room with a reptile owner.

Form-Questionnaire 

Drop-Off Appointment Form

Although in many instances a complete history form should be used for a drop-off appointment, this form may also prove useful. Download Drop-Off Appointment Form PDF

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Behavioral History Form 5

Provided by Dr. Lynne Seibert. board-certified veterinary behaviorist, Download Behavioral History Form 5 PDF.

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Behavioral History Form 1

Provided by Dr. Lynne Seibert. board-certified veterinary behaviorist Download Behavioral History Form 1 PDF.

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Behavioral History Form 6

Provided by Dr. Lynne Seibert. board-certified veterinary behaviorist, Download Behavioral History Form 6 PDF

Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Case Challenge Discussion

Husbandry-related conditions are very common in reptiles, and nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism is frequently recognized in clinical practice. The discussion portion of this Case Challenge reviews pathogenesis, history, examination findings, and diagnostic test results with radiography, and clinical pathology. Key points of case management are explored, including correction of husbandry and dietary factors, management of […]

Form-Questionnaire 

Amphibian History Form

A detailed history is mandatory for the amphibian patient as husbandry needs can have a tremendous impact on amphibian health. Download the LafeberVet Amphibian History Form available in PDF, DOCX and DOC formats.

Form-Questionnaire 

Nutritional Assessment Form

Developed by LafeberVet to evaluate dietary history and much more – Download this client questionnaire.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Fowl Detectives

[…] signs observed. It is important to know and understand the clues provided so that an expedient diagnosis can be made to assist client and patient. A thorough history of the poultry patient must be obtained to narrow the differential diagnoses list. In should be mentioned that poultry have unique anatomical differences from mammals, and […]

Form-Questionnaire 

Avian Neurologic Exam Form 1

Provided by Dr. Tracy Clippinger of the San Diego Zoo. Download Neurologic Exam Form 1 PDF.

Article 

Backyard Poultry Primer

[…] egg production for their own personal consumption.10,18,21,36 Backyard fowl are rarely vaccinated unless the collection is very large, it is a breeding flock, or there is a history of chronic disease in the flock.12 Owners often follow husbandry practices similar to that for free-range poultry, in which birds have access to an outdoor environment […]

Form-Questionnaire 

Ferret Physical Examination Form

History and physical examination forms donated by Dr. Tom Tully of Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine. Download Ferret Physical Exam Form PDF.

Article 

Exotic Companion Mammal Emergency & Critical Care Summary Page

[…] always abnormal. If the patient must be handled for transfer into the oxygen cage, swiftly and gently remove any nasal discharge present, if patient status allows.   History A detailed history for the exotic companion mammal should always include the seemingly innocuous topic of water containers (Table 1). If the patient is hospitalized, you […]

Article 

Avian Emergency & Critical Care Summary Page

[…] after the bird has had time to gather its strength and calm down, it may only be strong enough to handle diagnostics and treatment in stages.   History The avian history must be detailed and includes not only signalment and recent medical history, but also source of the pet, complete dietary history, caging history–including […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Canary

Canary – Serinus spp. Natural history Originating from the Canary Islands, the canary’s song captured the attention of Europeans, who started importing these birds in the late 1500’s. Although breeding for desirable traits has produced many variations, the wild canary is a small, green bird. Free-ranging populations are strong and are found in a […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Voice Change in Birds

[…] some form of visual security such a towel draped over part of the oxygen cage. See Basic Husbandry: Hospitalizing Non-Traditional Pets for additional advice. Obtain a complete history while the patient is being cage rested. Confirm signalment. Discuss the presenting complaint and the progression of clinical signs. Be sure to ask if a change […]

Article  Video 

Avian Respiratory Emergencies: An Approach to the Dyspneic Bird

[…] Be cautious when providing heat to overweight birds since overheating may exacerbate respiratory distress. Anamnesis While the patient is being cage rested in oxygen, obtain a complete history. Confirm signalment, and if the species is sexually monomorphic be sure to confirm how gender has been determined. Discuss the presenting complaint and the progression of […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Diarrhea in the Ferret

[…] be afflicted with Helicobacter gastritis, ferret enteric coronavirus, and stress-induced diarrhea while middle-aged to older ferrets may suffer from inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal lymphoma. Although signalment, history, and physical exam findings may be sufficient to reach a tentative diagnosis, additional diagnostics may include cytology such as fecal parasite testing, and imaging. Treatment will […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Clinical Approach to Amphibian Emergencies

View the RACE-approved webinar recording, presented by Douglas Whiteside, DVM, DVSc, DACZM, DECZM (Zoo Health Management). Topics covered include clinically relevant anatomy and physiology, obtaining a detailed history, triage and emergency therapies, clinical examination, diagnostic testing, analgesia, nutritional support, hospitalization, and euthanasia.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Flight Mechanics & Ethical Concerns

[…] is deemed an acceptable risk with the… Knowledge of flight mechanics Benefit of clear communication and education of risk and benefit Experience of a physical exam and history Knowledge that aggressive trims based upon fear of loss may be responsible for many of the physical and psychological problems manifested in birds but short and […]

Article 

Gastrointestinal Disease in the Ferret

[…] or localized. Neoplasia Lymphosarcoma is the most common malignancy in the domestic ferret. Intestinal lymphoma is usually seen in ferrets over 3 years of age, with a history of intermittent diarrhea or inflammatory bowel disease. The second most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal system is tumors arising from the smooth muscular layers of the […]

Article 

Reptile Emergency & Critical Care Summary Page

[…] shed or dysecdysis, including retained spectacles can be seen with ill thrift or deficient husbandry. Snakes can also appear dull when they are about to shed.   History Improper diet and inadequate housing are often major contributors to illness in reptiles. For this reason, a thorough history is a crucial part of clinical evaluation […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Diarrhea in Birds

[…] heat. Once the patient is rehydrated, begin an easily digestible diet such as Emeraid Omnivore or a dilute hand feeding formula. Feed small amounts frequently. Case management History and physical examination Obtain a complete history and signalment and carefully evaluate droppings. In addition to standard questions about signalment, clinical signs, and the duration of […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Shell Fractures in Chelonians

[…] for a full recovery, and that the shell may actually take years to return to a “normal” appearance needs to be conveyed.   Case management Review the history and husbandry In all cases, a thorough assessment of the patient’s history is essential, as well as a review of the long-term husbandry provided. The clinician […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Rabbit and Large Herbivorous Rodent Dental Disease

[…] take the quiz to earn continuing education credit. This webinar first explores clinically relevant anatomy and pathogenesis of congenital and acquired disease. Diagnosis is then discussed, including history, the focused, five-part oral examination, as well as skull radiographs and computed tomography. Therapeutic options, such as coronal height reduction, extractions, and options for odontogenic abscessation, […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Clinical Avian Nutrition for Veterinary Health Professionals

[…] cons of dietary options for the companion bird, from seed-only diets to pellets, extruded diets, and fortified whole seed diets. The presentation will also explore the nutritional history and physical exam findings related to nutritional status, and techniques for successful conversion to a healthy diet. The remainder of the seminar will focus on clinical […]

Article 

Poisonings in the Avian Patient

[…] and coins. The kidneys, liver, and pancreas are target organs for zinc. Poisoned psittacine birds often present with only generalized weakness. Tentative diagnosis may be based on history and the radiographic presence of metal in the gastrointestinal tract. Definitive diagnosis requires blood or tissue levels greater than 200 µg/dL and 75 µg/dL respectively. Clinical […]

Article 

Urolithiasis in Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents

[…] in male ferrets, females can also become obstructed potentially straining hard enough to cause rectal or vaginal prolapse and potentially fatal hemorrhage.   Diagnosis Obtain a complete history, including dietary history, from the owner. Cystic calculi or sand are often palpable in ferrets without obstruction, while a distended bladder is readily palpable in obstructed […]

Article 

Nutritional Management of Obesity in Birds

[…] or stereotypic movements, and feather destructive behavior. Weight loss program When formulating a weight loss program, the first step is to gather an accurate and detailed dietary history. Evaluate the patient’s health status with a complete physical examination as well as additional testing as needed. Obtain an accurate body weight in grams as well as body […]

Article 

Gastrointestinal Problems in Rabbits

Gastrointestinal problems are common in the pet rabbit. A thorough history, including a detailed dietary history, can provide invaluable clues to the problem at hand. Signs of gastrointestinal discomfort in the rabbit may include bruxism, reluctance to move, and anorexia. If there is a history of anorexia, it is imperative to differentiate whether the […]

Article 

Adrenocortical Disease in Ferrets

[…] years or older but has been reported in animals as young as one year of age. Presumptive diagnosis of adrenal disease in the ferret is based on history, clinical signs, imaging diagnostics, and steroid hormone analysis. Medical therapy using deslorelin implants, though not curative, is recommended. Ferrets may remain asymptomatic for a median of […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Veiled Chameleon

The veiled chameleon is indigenous to Yemen, in the southwestern region of the Saudi Arabian peninsula. This species is found in extreme environments ranging from arid desert to seasonal “wadis” or streams that form in the desert after rain. Pets may be captive bred or wild caught and imported.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Miniature Pig

[…] There are at least 14 recognized breeds of miniature pigs, including the Vietnamese potbellied pig, the Juliana pig, the KuneKune, and others. This information sheet reviews natural history and taxonomy, as well as a number of clinically relevant information including (but not limited to) diet, housing, behavior, normal physiologic data and anatomy, restraint, preventive […]

Article 

Behavior Essentials: Clinical Approach to the Guinea Pig

Guinea pigs are small, docile rodents, that must be approached with great care. Accurate evaluation of patient health status requires a thorough history, careful visual examination, and a detailed physical examination. Like most prey species, the guinea pig frequently hides signs of pain and illness. To improve clinical success, take measures to minimize stress […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Guinea Pig

The guinea pig is a native of Peru, Brazil, and Argentina that was domesticated by the Inca Indians. This Basic Information Sheet reviews a variety of topics including natural history, breeds, diet, caging, normal physiologic values, anatomy/physiology, restraint, venipuncture, important medical conditions, as well as antibiotics to avoid.

Article 

Five Features of Marsupial Anatomy: With Focus on the Sugar Glider Physical Exam

[…] is a furred membrane of skin or gliding membrane that stretches between the forelimbs and hind legs. These skin folds are extensions of the lateral body wall. When the glider is at rest, this excess skin appears as a rippled border along the sides. During a glide, the skin spreads out to form a rectangle…

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Virginia Opossum

[…] only marsupial native to North America. This New World species is correctly called an “opossum” as opposed to the Old World “possum”. This information sheet reviews natural history, conservation status, and taxonomy, as well as a number of clinically relevant information including (but not limited to) diet, housing, behavior, normal physiologic data and anatomy, […]

Article 

Diseases of the Rabbit Respiratory Tract

[…] (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Although respiratory disease may often be caused by a bacterial infection, there are a host of possible factors that should be considered. Obtain a detailed history and perform a careful physical examination, in order to formulate an appropriate differential list and diagnostic plan.   Differential diagnoses for respiratory signs in the rabbit […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Beak Trauma

[…] injury such as meloxicam (0.2-0.5 mg/kg PO, IM, SC q12-24h) and/or butorphanol (1-4 mg/kg IM q6-12h). Beak tip injuries appear to be particularly painful. Case management Signalment, history and examination Beak trauma is a common problem in the companion parrot (Fig 1). Injury may be associated with inappetance and reluctance to climb or preen. […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Kingsnakes

Kingsnakes (Lampropeltis spp.) Natural history There are several species of kingsnake and their habitat and range vary. The Eastern kingsnake is found in humid forests of the eastern seaboard states and as far west as the Appalachians and Alabama. The California kingsnake is native to desert, arid grassland, and rocky hillsides of Baja Mexico […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Corn Snake

Corn Snakes (Pantherophis guttatus guttatus or Elaphe guttata) Photo credit: Lauren Mitchell via Flickr Creative Commons Natural History The corn snake is also known as the red rat snake. Corn snakes are found in woodland and forest regions of the southeastern and central United States as far west as Kentucky and Louisiana and as […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Boas and Pythons

Boas and Pythons Photo credit: ‘Dept’ by Flickr Creative Common Natural history The group of snakes called “boas” consists of over 40 species. Most popular pet boas are New World species, however boas are also found in Africa and Asia. Most boas live in environments that range from tropical rain forest to dry woodland […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Mouse

House Mouse (Mus musculus) Natural history The most common pet mouse is the standard white laboratory mouse, although pet mice are not as inbred as some strains of lab mice. Taxonomy Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Myomorpha Family: Cricetidae-gerbils, lemmings, muskrats, New World rats and mice, voles Breeds The standard white lab mouse is […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits

[…] not responding to manipulation, then the rabbit requires immediate stabilization or a resuscitation protocol should be initiated. In other cases, as rabbits hide clinical signs, a precise history should be obtained and a thorough physical examination should be performed. In cardiopulmonary arrest, mechanical cardiac activity halts leading to hemodynamic collapse. As this is an […]

Form-Questionnaire 

Anesthetic Record 4

Download this anesthesia monitoring sheet, available as a PDF, and recommended by veterinary technician specialist, Katrina Lafferty.

Article 

Otitis in Rabbits

[…] potentially play a role but these conditions are rarely reported in dogs and cats and have not been described in rabbits. Diagnosis of otitis Obtain a detailed history: Determine the onset and duration of disease. Is there a history of any prior illness, especially respiratory disease? Ascertain the possibility of exposure to toxins or […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Diarrhea in Chelonians

[…] This paper describes the basics of case management beginning with anamnesis, continuing with information on the examination, tests and potential treatments and concluding with client education.   History Verify signalment and obtain a complete history. In addition to standard questions about clinical signs, duration and progression of illness, question the owner about the turtle […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicosis in Free-Living Birds of Prey

[…] agricultural settings. Therefore toxicosis from either SGARs or FGARs may be encountered when treating free-living birds of prey in the US.   Key points of urgent care History Free-living birds of prey suffering from AR toxicosis are often presented with a history of “not flying” and, if found by a road, are commonly presumed […]

Article 

Crop Stasis in Birds

[…] lesions or obstructions of the gastrointestinal tract. Complete blood count and biochemistry panel results may help to identify systemic causes of functional ileus. Depending on signalment and history, additional testing may include heavy metal blood levels, serum bile acids, and psittacosis testing. 4. Non-specific therapy Non-specific therapy of the patient with crop stasis may […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Feather Destructive Behavior in Psittacine Birds Webinar

[…] body where hair grows. Both hair pulling and hand washing may represent pathologic grooming sequences. Treatment recommendations are specific for each individual bird based on a thorough history and accurate assessment of the contributing factors. Recommendations should include environmental enrichment, nutritional adjustments, reduction of environmental allergens, opportunities for social interactions, and intellectual stimulation. Pharmacotherapy […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Avian Cardiology Essentials

Cardiovascular disease commonly occurs in companion birds and poses a serious threat to the quality of life and longevity of many avian species. This live, interactive, RACE-approved webinar was presented by avian veterinarian, Brenna Fitzgerald. Topics discussed include key features of avian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, risk factors, as well as specific clinical disease states, including atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and pericardial disease and effusion. This lecture also reviewed essential elements of a diagnostic workup, and current treatment approaches that can improve longevity and quality of life for these patients.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: European Hedgehog

The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is one of the most common species seen in wildlife rehabilitation in western Europe. Hedgehogs are potential carriers of zoonotic disease. Ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the most commonly contracted zoonosis of wildlife rehabilitators in the United Kingdom. Other important medical conditions include ectoparasites infestations, gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella enteritidits or coccidiosis as well as bronchopneumonia associated with bacterial and/or lungworm infection.

Use our European hedgehog Information Sheet to review taxonomy, conservation status, physical description, diet and housing needs, anatomy and physiology, preventive care as well as important medical conditions. Login to view information sheet references.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Decision Making in Rabbit Gastrointestinal Syndrome

View this RACE-approved webinar recording presented by Joanne Sheen BVM&S CertZooMed DABVP (Exotic Companion Mammal Practice): “To Cut or Not to Cut… Decision Making in Rabbit Gastrointestinal Syndrome”. This seminar reviews rabbit gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology as well as the baseline diagnostic workup in RGIS. Treatment is dependent on the underlying etiology. Fluid therapy and analgesia are considered cornerstones in the management of gastrointestinal disease in rabbits, but other specific treatments such as active warming, intestinal promotility agents, antimicrobials, and nutritional support may also be warranted. Surgery may be indicated for some conditions, such as intestinal obstruction, liver lobe torsion, and appendicitis…

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Paresis, Paralysis, and Tremors in Sugar Gliders

[…] HPW (Vets Pride; Nashville, TN) and/or commercial insectivore diet gruel Any fractures present should be stabilized using external coaptation techniques.   Case management Clinical signs and dietary history are often enough to develop a strong clinical suspicion. Use additional testing to confirm your suspicions.   History Obtain a detailed history that includes information on […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Abnormal Urine in Rabbits

[…] of the urinary tract. Heavy bladder sludge or urolithiasis may promote hematuria. Blood may also be passed with uterine infection or uterine venous aneurysm.   Case management History Use a detailed history to help distinguish between the cause of abnormal urinations as well as appropriate case management: What is the calcium content of the […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: African Pygmy Hedgehog

African Pygmy Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) Natural history The African pygmy hedgehog is a native of West and Central Africa. The African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), also known as the central African, white-bellied, or four-toed hedgehog 1, is native to the savannah and steppe regions of Central Africa, extending from Somalia in the East and […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Retained Spectacles in Reptiles

[…] snakes and some gecko species like the crested gecko (Rhacodactylus ciliatus) (Stahl 2013). Note: Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess an eyelid, and therefore lack a spectacle.   History Obtain detailed information on the patient’s medical history as well as husbandry, including including cage temperature and relative humidity. When did the last shed occur? Visual […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Heatstroke in Exotic Companion Mammals

Heatstroke is the most severe form of heat-related illnesses. In this life-threatening condition, the body is unable to dissipate heat load at a rate that accommodates excessive heat levels. Begin treatment immediately once heatstroke is suspected. Intensive care is aimed at reducing body temperature while supporting organ function. A variety of techniques can be […]

Article 

Exotic ICU: Nursing Care for Exotic Companion Mammals

[…] grooming will also allow porphyrin tears to accumulate around the eyes and nares in small rodents like rats and mice (see Sequelae below). Finally, keep the natural history of your patient in mind. An ICU technician working third shift may observe significantly more activity in nocturnal species, such as rats or hamsters. These species […]

Article 

A Necropsy Guide to Serpentes

[…] uncovering the clearest diagnostic answers.   Pre-necropsy Prior to beginning the necropsy, familiarize yourself with all pertinent information. Signalment is extremely important. Knowledge of the animal’s clinical history, husbandry, parasite status, as well as any recent medications or supplements will also go a long way in ensuring you get the best diagnostic answers possible. […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Critical Care Techniques for Avian Wildlife Emergencies

[…] crystalloid fluids varies with species and is related to metabolic rate. For birds this may be anywhere from 50-150 ml/kg/day depending on size, species, age, and natural history (i.e. xerophilic vs. aquatic birds). Again, remember that drugs given IM in the caudal half of the body may go through the renal portal system. Therefore, […]

Article  Presenting Problem  Quiz 

Presenting problem: Cardiac Dysrhythmia in the Ferret

[…] in healthy ferrets, often accompanying a sinus arrhythmia. High grade second-degree AV block and complete or third degree AV block are rare and indicate electrical system dysfunction. History Carefully question owners to identify clinical signs that may be related to an arrhythmia or structural heart disease. Complaints commonly reported include lethargy, weakness and anorexia […]

Article  Teaching Module 

Emergency and Critical Care Teaching Module

[…] commonly found in the pet trade, until such time that the patient can be referred to another facility… ‘valuate’ means to look at the patient, obtain a history, and do, at minimum, a visual exam. A ‘hands-on’ exam can be done within the limits of the patient’s and the examiner’s safety and comfort level…For […]

Article  Quiz 

Rabbit Reproduction Basics

[…] the most common neoplasia of the domestic rabbit (Varga 2013, Klaphake 2012, Vinci 2010, Walter 2010). The incidence of uterine tumors is independent of the doe’s breeding history (Klaphake 2012). Age is considered the most important risk factor for this slowly developing tumor, and the incidence of disease is highest in middle aged to […]

Article 

What Did You Miss in 2015?

[…] Support to the Exotic Animal Patient: Theory & Practical Applications, video Presenting problem: “Red Leg” in Frogs Fast Facts on Chytrid Fungus Amphibian Physical Examination Form Amphibian History Form Palawan Turtle Crisis Slideshow Sea Turtle Physical Examination Part 1: Eyes-Ears-Nose-Throat Sea Turtle Physical Examination: Part 2 Body Condition Scoring the Sea Turtle Basic Husbandry: […]

Form-Questionnaire 

Surgical Safety Checklist

The Vets Now Surgical Safety Checklist includes a list of safety issues that should be read aloud, with both the veterinarian and veterinary nurse or veterinary technician present. This checklist is divided into three categories: induction of anesthesia, before the skin incision, and before the patient leaves the operating room…

Article  Video  Webinar 

Keeping and Treating Mediterranean Tortoises

[…] Humidity Substrate Nutrition and water Hibernation needs and management Reproduction and annual cycle Causes of follicular stasis Diagnosis and management of follicular stasis Clinical investigations Examination and history taking Blood sampling Hematology and biochemistry interpretation Radiography Endoscopy Hospitalization needs Disease prevention and role of tortoise parties   About the presenter Dr. John Chitty is […]

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Aural Abscess in Turtles

[…] fact the yolk sac, which is not completely resorbed until roughly 6 months of age, generally provides adequate vitamin A levels to young turtles (Kirchgessner 2009).   History The chief presenting complaint for the turtle with an aural abscess is often swelling on the head. Owners of captive turtles may also report a history […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Rabbit Nutrition and Critical Care Feeding

[…] assessment the veterinary nurse can begin to formulate a feeding plan. The nutritional assessment is similar to that performed in other species. It begins with a detailed history of the animal, a nutritional history, husbandry practices, and the animal’s environment. A systematic physical examination should be performed and the body condition score (BCS) and […]

Article 

World Lion Day Facts

[…] from their natal pride by the male leader at approximately 2.5 years (2-4 years) of age. These males lead nomadic lives for 2 to 3 years, then form a coalition. These coalitions, usually consisting of brothers, often take over a new pride by force. Conservation status Lions are critically endangered. Lions formerly ranged from […]

Article 

Diarrhea in the Avian Patient

[…] prognosis are: intestinal neoplasia, hepatic or pancreatic fibrosis, intestinal papillomatosis, and PDD.   Conclusion Avian patients that present with diarrhea are generally complex cases. Obtain a complete history and signalment and carefully evaluate droppings. Fecal tests and a complete blood count are essential diagnostic tools, and an array of additional tests are often required […]

Article 

Waterfowl Diseases: A “Cheat Sheet”

[…] Colibacillosis (ducks) Articular gout Trauma (bite wound) (Avian tuberculosis) Respiratory signs Yolk peritonitis is an important cause of respiratory distress in geese. Owners often report a recent history of reproductive activity. Coelomic distension is a common physical exam finding. Delayed molt is also sometimes seen. Sinusitis caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an important reason […]

Article 

Parenteral Nutrition in Birds

[…] A patient receiving inadequate protein and calories is at increased risk for infection, delayed healing, and dehiscence.   Assessment of nutritional status Obtain a dietary and clinical history, and assess body condition score. Even obese animals can be malnourished and should be carefully palpated for reduced muscle mass. Albumin is the best indicator of […]

Article 

Behavior Essentials: Clinical Approach to the Rabbit

[…] species, rabbits tend to mask signs of pain or illness, particularly when frightened and placed in strange surroundings. Therefore it is particularly important to obtain a good history in the rabbit patient. History The successful rabbit veterinarian listens carefully to owner observations and takes seriously any behaviors the owner considers abnormal for their pet […]

Article 

Pet Food Labels: Unraveling the Fine Print

[…] veterinary healthcare team should focus on proper nutrition for every pet that presents to their hospital. To do this, the healthcare team must perform a complete nutritional history and patient assessment and be knowledgeable about the wide variety of foods that are on the market today. Not all foods are created equal and pet […]

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Rabies in Terrestrial Small Mammals

[…] host to other species occurs with all virus variants. However, the extent to which spillover occurs is somewhat dependent upon both the virus variant and the natural history of the reservoir host. Canine rabies, or rabies caused by the canine adapted variant of this virus, remains the most common type of rabies in most […]

Article 

Avicultural Medicine: Quarantine Protocols

[…] disease. Testing for infectious diseases or fecal parasite screening should be performed as dictated by the number of birds, susceptibility and carrier potential of the species, flock history, and client financial constraints. I usually recommend Chlamydophila psittaci serology in all birds. Bank serum or plasma, if possible. During quarantine, the sex of the bird(s) […]