Article 

Parenteral Nutrition in Birds

If the gut works, use it. The preferred route for providing nutrition is enteral feeding since this preserves intestinal structure and function. Parenteral nutrition is indicated to prevent malnutrition when patients cannot consume adequate nutrients by oral feeding or tube feeding or when the respiratory tract cannot be protected. Parenteral nutrition is 100% bioavailable […]

Article 

Pet Food Labels: Unraveling the Fine Print

Introduction
A critical component for maintaining the health of all animals is proper nutrition. Every patient, healthy or ill, that visits the veterinary hospital should have an evaluation of their nutritional status and healthcare team members should be ready to make a nutritional recommendation based on this evaluation. Unfortunately the large number of pet foods […]

Article 

Online Resources: Nutrition

veterinary patients. This list of links come from a variety of sources: academic institutions, industry, government, and professional organizations.

Article 

Clinical Perspectives on the Principles of Avian Nutrition

[…] seeds from a single species of tree in their native environment.
 

Table 1. Feeding strategies and common diet ingredient of wild psittacine birds.
(Table adapted from Koutsos, et al. Nutrition of birds in the order Psittaciformes: a review. J Avian Med Surg. 2001;15:257–275.)

Species name
Feeding strategy
Common diet ingredients
Time spent feeding*

Blue and gold macaw
(Ara araraunda)
Florivore
Seeds, fruits, nuts
NR

Military macaw
(Ara […]

Article 

Avian Nutrition Glossary

Created with a focus on the bird, LafeberVet’s Nutrition Glossary is an extensive list of vocabulary terms. Listed terms range from nutrients like vitamins and minerals, nutritional strategies ranging from frugivore to fungivore, and related anatomy or physiologic terms like crop and coprodeum, and even nutrition-related diseases like goiter and […]

Article  Product information 

Formulated Diets in Avian Nutrition

Providing a bird with good nutrition often has different meanings for clinicians and clients. While the goal is to provide a diet that mimics the diet of that particular species in the wild, in captivity those strategies for feeding parrots are very […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Critical Care Nutrition

When Kara Burns, veterinary technician specialist in nutrition, visited Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine during the fall of 2014, her lecture on critical care nutrition made a big impression on the veterinary medical students. This 48-minute presentation explores the basics of nutritional supportive care appropriate for all species before concluding with information on […]

Product information 

Nutrition and Foraging Kits

& Foraging Kits contain trial sizes of Nutri-Berries, Avi-Cakes, Pellet-Berries and Premium Daily Diet Pellets. Each kit comes in four sizes: parakeet, cockatiel, parrot, macaw/cockatoo.

Article  Product information 

Nutritional Strategies for the Companion Parrot

[…] provide little nutritional value. Another technique is to add a colored pellet into the seed mix but most birds do not eat these, so balance for proper nutrition is not gained.
 
Pelleted diets
Lafeber Company and Roudybush are the only bird food companies that make a truly pellet-based food. Pellets consist primarily of ground grains like […]

Article 

Avicultural Medicine: General Concepts

The cornerstone of successful aviculture is healthy breeding birds. These birds should be kept in a stress-free environment and provided with optimal nutrition to meet their physiological needs. Sound management techniques are paramount to ensure the birds remain healthy. Proper environmental enrichment is also important for psychological and behavioral […]

Article 

Feeding the Hospitalized Bird of Prey

[…] but require a significantly smaller percentage of their body mass as daily food intake. (Forbes 2015).
 
Tube feeding
As long as the patient possesses a functional gastrointestinal tract, enteral nutrition can be started once the patient is warm and adequately hydrated (Murray 2014). Oral electrolyte fluids like Pedialyte (Abbott) are sometimes offered before tube feedings. Avoid […]

Client Education Handout 

Nutrition: The Key to Your Chinchilla’s Health

[…] diet is essential to your chinchilla’s health. This educational material was awarded third place in the 2021 Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians (AEMV) Veterinary Technology Client Education Materials Contest, sponsored by Lafeber Company.

Download the PDF version of this chinchilla nutrition client education handout, or modify the DOCX version or DOC version for your veterinary hospital. https://lafeber.com/vet/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Nutrition-Chinchilla.png

Article 

Nutritional Equivalency Report: Comparison of a Fortified Whole-Grain Diet (Nutri-Berries) with a Pelleted Diet for Companion Birds

[…] vitamins, certain amino acids, and some minerals including calcium, zinc, copper, and iron. To overcome these deficiencies, pellets and extruded diets have been developed to provide balanced nutrition. Seeds, minerals, and vitamins are ground to a mostly homogenous mixture, and then processed into a pellet. This keeps birds from choosing individual components. However, pellets […]

Stefanie Kotschwar BScH (Zoology, Nutrition), MSc (Zoo Conservation), RVT

[…] of Sciences in zoo conservation biology from Plymouth University. While working as a veterinary assistant in Guelph, Stefanie did the Distance Education Veterinary Program through Cedar Valley College. She has a special interest in exotic medicine, nutrition, and emergency care. Her long term goal is to obtain Veterinary Technician Specialty in Clinical Practice (Exotic Medicine).

Nancy Irlbeck, MS, PhD

[…] College of Agricultural Sciences at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado. Dr. Irlbeck received a bachelor’s degree in animal sciences and a Master’s degree in animal nutrition at Iowa State University. Her Ph.D. work in ruminant nutrition was completed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Prior to her administrative appointment, Nancy served as a […]

Article 

Adaptations in Herbivore Nutrition

Herbivore nutrition separates animals into two main categories, depending on where food particles are broken down and fermented prior to absorption. The categories are foregut and hindgut fermenters, with the hindgut group being broken down into colonic and cecal […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Cockatiel

[…] patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings: avian polyoma virus, psittacosis.
Determine the origin and […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Canary

[…] is acceptable in the healthy patient.
The predominate white blood cell in passerines is the lymphocyte.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings
Determine origin and history of newly acquired sick […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: African Grey Parrot

[…] patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings: avian polyoma virus and avian chlamydiosis.
Determine origin […]

Article 

The Nutritional Content of Pet Bird Diets

[…] also anatomical and physiological between gallinaceous birds and pet birds, which undoubtedly affect nutritional needs. Anecdotal reports suggest that the use of formulated diets in avian nutrition reduce the prevalence of nutritionally based disease.
 
Abstract
A published study (Hess L, Mauldin G, Rosenthal K. Estimated nutrient content of diets commonly fed to pet birds. Vet […]

Article 

Nutritional Management of Gastrointestinal Disease in the Bird

[…] diet should initially be fed. Dietary fiber may assist in the management of bacterial overgrowth, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, and colitis. Fiber promotes gastrointestinal motility and provides nutrition to colonic epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial cells use butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by bacterial fermentation within the cecum for energy. Avian species with a […]

Article  Client Education Handout 

2021 AEMV Veterinary Technology Contest

Introduction Lafeber Company was proud to sponsor the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians (AEMV) Veterinary Technology Client Education Materials Contest. Credentialed veterinary technicians, veterinary technologists, veterinary nurses, as well as students in this field were encouraged to submit a two-page, English-language educational handout (1500 words or less) about a companion exotic mammal health and wellness […]

Form-Questionnaire 

Nutritional Assessment Form

Developed by LafeberVet to evaluate dietary history and much more – Download this client questionnaire.

Article 

The Exotic Animal History

Although patient history is important in all species, improper diet and substandard housing are often major contributors to illness in non-traditional pets. This means that a detailed and accurate history is often one of the most critical diagnostic tools for the exotic animal patient. This review focuses on birds, reptiles, and small exotic companion mammals, beginning with the signalment and presenting complaint, before moving onto the environmental history, dietary history, and of course the medical history.

Article 

Estimating Energy Requirements

[…] by a healthy animal under thermoneutral conditions 12 hours after a meal. The animal is conscious but not exercising.
Practical applications
The basal metabolic rate applies primarily to human nutrition because the conditions needed to measure BMR are so stringent that it is virtually impossible to do so in animals.

↑ top

Resting energy rate (RER)
Definition
The resting […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Nutritional Support to the Critical Exotic Patient

View the recording of this free, interactive webinar, presented by Neil Forbes, BVetMed DECZM (Avian) FRCVS. Many sick or injured exotic animals are presented in critical condition. More of these patients can be saved by appropriate fluids and nutritional support, than by any single medical or surgical procedure. In practical terms, providing this support is often easier said than done. Dr. Forbes’ presentation serves to demystify some of the challenges encountered; practical solutions for all exotic patients are described and discussed.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Medical Management of Psittacines with Bornavirus Ganglioneuritis (PDD)

Did you attend the Lafeber Symposium at the 2015 International Conference on Avian heRpetological and Exotic mammal medicine in Paris? View a recording of this encore, web-based seminar: “Medical Management of Psittacines with Bornavirus Ganglioneuritis (PDD)” by Susan Orosz, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice), DECZM (Avian). This presentation on avian borna virus contains medium to advanced level content. The novice is encouraged to view the first hour of Dr. Orosz’s presentation “Anatomy & Physiology of the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract: Clinical Applications”, which includes a helpful review of avian gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology.

Product information 

Lafeber Product Lecture Tools

Need images of Lafeber Company products? Download these PowerPoint files for your viewing–or lecturing–pleasure!

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Lory and Lorikeet

[…] patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thoroug hannual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings:avian polyomavirus, avian chlamydiosis.
Use of the equine West […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Macaw

[…] patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings: avian polyoma virus and psittacosis.
Determine origin and […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Eclectus Parrot

[…] patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings: avian polyomavirus, psittacosis.
Determine the origin and history […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Conure

[…] healthy patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, plasma biochemistry panels, and protein electrophoresis).
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings: avian polyomavirus, psittacosis.
Determine the origin and history […]

Article 

Seeds Commonly Fed to Companion Birds

[…] occasionally eat non-oil seeds like millet to the exclusion of everything else. These birds lose body condition as they continue to eat ravenously, attempting to extract sufficient nutrition from these non-oil seeds devoid of significant levels of fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals.
Although seed mixes should never be recommended for companion parrots, it is always […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Cockatoo

[…] acceptable.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings: avian polyomavirus, psittacosis.
Determine the origin and history […]

Jason Crean, MS, EdD

Dr. Jason Crean currently teaches in the Department of Biological Sciences at Saint Xavier University-Chicago where he has instituted coursework like “Zoo Biology: Animal Nutrition, Behavior & Diagnostics.” Dr. Crean is also a zoo consultant, working with zoological institutions in the areas of nutrition, enrichment, and biologically-appropriate exhibit design. He currently […]

La’Toya Latney, DVM

[…] a Cornell University undergraduate alum and she received her Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine from Ross University and Louisiana State University. Dr. Latney has conducted research in reptile nutrition and is completing a Master’s of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at Penn Medicine. Her current clinical trial was developed to validate a pain assessment tool for […]

Article 

Online Resources: Small Mammals

Although we’d like to believe you need look no further than LafeberVet, exotic animal medicine is a diverse and varied topic. View LafeberVet’s ever-growing list of additional online resources on small mammal medicine. Small Mammals American Association of Laboratory Animal Science aalas.org/index.aspxAmerican Association of Zoo Veterinarians aazv.org/ American Board of Veterinary Practitioners abvp.com/ American College […]

Article 

AEMV Veterinary Technology Client Education Materials Contest

Lafeber Company is proud to sponsor the Inaugural Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Veterinary Technician/Technologist and Technician Student Client Education Materials Contest   Introduction Veterinary technologists play a vital role in client education in the veterinary practice. While many clients are quick to consult “Dr. Google,” the veterinary team should be quick to combat misinformation […]

Article 

Behavior Essentials: The Guinea Pig

The guinea pig is a gentle, highly social rodent, that commonly serves as a companion animal and an experimental model in North America and Europe. Food preferences are established early in life, and a guinea pig can refuse to eat if their food type or presentation is changed. For this reason, small mammal veterinarians recommend exposing juvenile guinea pigs to a variety of chows and vegetables. Guinea pigs also do not tolerate environmental changes well. When exposed to something perceived as dangerous, the response of the guinea pig is generally to freeze, or less commonly flight.

Kirk Klasing, PhD

[…] system and growth and reproduction, as well as the impact of an animal’s diet on the immune response. His lab also explores the diverse nutritional and immune strategies of carnivorous, nectarivorous, herbivorous and granivorous animals. Included among Dr. Klasing’s many publications is the detailed text on avian nutrition: Comparative Avian Nutrition. https://lafeber.com/vet/wp-content/uploads/Klasing.jpg Kirk Klasing PhD

Article 

Pigeon Fancy: Talking the Talk

[…] A juvenile rock dove. Photo credit: John Liu via Flickr Creative Commons Click image to enlarge.
Successful flock maintenance
Success in pigeon fancy requires optimal environmental conditions including proper nutrition, husbandry, and preventive care.
Housing
Normal pigeon housing, also called a loft or dovecote, is derived from a time when fanciers kept birds in the attics of their […]

Article 

Exotic ICU: Nursing Care for Reptiles

Due to their unique anatomy, physiology, and behavior, critically ill reptiles pose special challenges. Fortunately there are a host of tips and tricks that can increase clinical success in an intensive care setting.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Lovebird

[…] patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings:avian polyomavirus, avian chlamydiosis.
Use of the equine West […]

Article 

What Did You Miss in 2015?

[…] Animal Patient: Theory & Practical Applications, video
Presenting problem: “Red Leg” in Frogs
Case Challenge: 5-Year-Old Rabbit with Anorexia & Lethargy
Bloat and Gastrointestinal Blockage in Rabbits Client Handout
Critical Care Nutrition, video
A Guide to Esophagostomy Tube Placement in Chelonians

Contributors in 2015
We are thankful for our contributors, who take time out of incredibly busy schedules to share their […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Finch

[…] lymphocyte.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings:avian polyomavirus, psittacosis.
Determine the origin and history of […]

Article  Slideshow  Video  Webinar 

Avian Nutrition Basics

This 1-hour, R.A.C.E.-approved webinar recording is designed to impart a basic understanding of avian nutrition for the veterinary health professional as well as students in these fields. Viewing of this recorded is strongly recommended before viewing the recording of the live webinar event Clinical Avian Nutrition for Veterinary Health Professionals by Susan Orosz, PhD, […]

Quiz 

Post Test: Avian Nutrition Basics

View the on-demand recording of this non-interactive webinar, then take the brief quiz. With a passing grade of 70% or higher, you will receive a continuing education certificate for 1 hour of continuing education credit in jurisdictions that recognize American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Approved Continuing Education approval.

Article 

Expert Panel on Companion Bird Nutrition

In 1998, an expert committee met to discuss the nutritional needs of companion birds. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop nutrient profiles for companion birds, focusing on profiles for formulated feed.

The expert panel developed maintenance guidelines for two broad groups of birds: psittacines and passerines (regardless of size or genus). These conservative, generalized guidelines are extrapolated from the National Research Council requirements for poultry and…

Client Education Handout 

Chinese Box Turtle Client Handout

[…] patty and pond environments of Taiwan and southern China. Shared by Dr. La’Toya Latney of PennVet, this educational handout will help your client understand how to care for and maintain this semi-aquatic turtle in captivity. Recommendations for indoor and outdoor housing as well as nutrition and breeding are described as well as common clinical problems.

Client Education Handout 

Sulcata or African Spurred Tortoise Client Handout

[…] edge of the Sahara in Africa. Sulcata tortoises inhabit hot arid desert, scrubland, and savannah. Shared by Dr. La’Toya Latney of PennVet, this educational handout will help your client understand how to care for and maintain this popular tortoise in captivity. Recommendations for housing as well as nutrition, breeding, and common clinical problems are described.

Article 

Feeding the Hospitalized Small Mammal

Providing nutrition to the hospitalized small mammal is a fairly straightforward process. Encourage owners to bring their pet’s “regular” diet to minimize the risk of food refusal or gastrointestinal upset. Also consider keeping the following food items […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Routine Veterinary Care of the Miniature Pig

[…] seek like-minded veterinarians, but lack of training and paucity of resources leads many veterinarians to shy away from these unique pets. This recording of the live, interactive webinar reviews handling and restraint as well as routine veterinary procedures, from physical examination, vaccination, and nutrition to therapeutics such as hoof trim, tusk trim, and deworming protocols.

Client Education Handout 

Mud Turtle Client Handout

[…] surrounded by dense forest floors or submerged savannah. Shared by Dr. La’Toya Latney of PennVet, this educational handout will help your client understand how to care for and maintain this aquatic turtle species in captivity. Recommendations for indoor and outdoor housing as well as nutrition are described as well as common problems seen pet turtles.

Client Education Handout 

Leopard Tortoise Client Handout

[…] Ethiopia. Leopard tortoises inhabit hot arid desert, scrublands, and savannah. Shared by Dr. La’Toya Latney of PennVet, this educational handout will help your client understand how to care for and maintain this tortoise in captivity. Recommendations for indoor and outdoor housing as well as nutrition and breeding are described as well as common clinical problems.

Article 

Feeding the Hospitalized Turtle or Tortoise

Turtles and tortoises display a variety of dietary strategies ranging from the complete herbivory seen in many tortoises to the strict carnivory displayed in aquatic species like the snapping turtle. There are also many chelonians, such as the Eastern box turtle, that may be considered opportunistic omnivores. This review article, critiqued by reptile nutritionist, Susan Donoghue, discusses clinical concerns related to feeding the hospitalized turtle or tortoise. Topics covered range from recognizing true anorexia to food items to avoid. Practical technical concerns related to nutritional support such as tube feeding and daily caloric requirements are also discussed.

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Amazon Parrot

[…] patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings: avian polyomavirus and chlamydiosis.
Determine the origin and […]

Article 

Use of Nutri-An Cakes for Weight Reduction and Maintenance

[…] weight gain is to feed calorie-restricted diets. These diets should reduce energy density (e.g., calories per gram) while providing normal levels of other nutrients required for balanced nutrition. If a maintenance diet is fed at a reduced rate, energy is reduced, but so too are all the other nutrients, so that the diet I […]

Article  Video 

Tube Feeding Birds

[…] provided as balanced amino acids
High

Carbohydrate
Normal
Moderate
Normal
Normal

Fat
High
Moderate
High
Variable

Fiber
Low
High
Low
Low

Guaranteed Analyses

Protein
20.0%
19.00%
37.80%
44.50%

Fat
9.5%
9.50%
34.00%
4.40% + fish oil added

Fiber
0.5%
32.00%
4.50%
4.46%

*Emeraid Intensive Care Omnivore and Emeraid Intensive Care Herbivore should not be provided as the sole source of nutrition for more than 7 days. Both Emeraid Intensive Care Carnivore and EmerAid Sustain Herbivore can be fed for an extended time.

References Presenting problem: Anorexia in Birds […]

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Fennec Fox

[…] this practice is generally not recommended: Kits are pulled at 10-12 days, and fed a fox milk replacer such as Day One® Formula 35/32 (Fox Valley Animal Nutrition; Lake Zurich, IL). Solid food may be introduced at 1 month in force-weaned animals, and weaning can occur as early as 6 weeks.
Adult size and sexual […]

Article 

Urolithiasis in Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents

  Introduction Urolithiasis is characterized by single or multiple calculi throughout the urinary tract or by the presence of sandy material within the bladder and urethra.  Uroliths are fortunately more of a historical disease in the ferret, while calculi are still an important problem in rabbits and rodents (Fig 1). Figure 1. Large urolith in […]

Article  Video 

Avian Respiratory Emergencies: An Approach to the Dyspneic Bird

Recognizing dyspnea Can you recognize respiratory difficulty in this bird? Clip provided by Dr. Isabelle Langlois. Note: This video has no audio. Respirations should be hardly noticeable in the normal, calm bird. Signs of excessive respiratory effort include open-mouth breathing, increased sternal motion, and tail bobbing (Fig 1). Additional signs of respiratory distress may include […]

Client Education Handout 

Nutritional Requirements for Guinea Pigs

[…] calcium and vitamin C. This educational material was awarded second place in the 2021  Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians (AEMV) Veterinary Technology Student Client Education Materials Contest, sponsored by Lafeber Company.

Download the PDF version of this guinea pig nutrition client education handout, or modify the DOCX version or DOC version for your veterinary hospital. https://lafeber.com/vet/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Nutr-Req-for-Gpigs-screenshot-copy-299×400.png Calcium and Vit C handout screenshot

Article 

Esophagostomy Tube Placement in Birds

Introduction Placement of an enteral feeding tube is a recognized method of supportive care, and the esophagostomy tube is an accepted route that is generally well tolerated by patients and relatively easy to place. In clinical avian patients, esophagostomy tube placement has been described in parrots, raptors, and ostriches (Fig 1) (Huynh et al 2014, […]

Client Education Handout 

Green Iguana, Care of the

The green or common iguana (Iguana iguana) is a tree-dwelling reptile native to the tropical and subtropical regions of central and South America and parts of Mexico. Unlike domestic pets that have lived with human beings for multiple generations, pet reptiles, (even those that are captive bred) are still essentially wild animals. Our goal for […]

Article  Video 

Syringe Feeding the Ferret

[…] times daily. If the animal cannot eat much at a time, then feedings may be as frequent as every 2 to 3 hours.
Further reading
Ackerman N. Companion Animal Nutrition: A Manual for Veterinary Nurses and Technicians. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, St. Louis, 2008.
Banks RE, Sharp JM, Doss SD, Vanderford DA. Exotic Small Mammal Care and Husbandry. […]

Article  Video 

Nutritional Support in Reptiles

Introduction Nutritional support is indicated in reptiles with a 10% drop in body weight, and force-feeding is sometimes indicated with a history of anorexia. Interpretation of anorexia can be difficult in some reptiles, particularly snakes and chelonians. Never rush to feed a reptile. The patient must first be warm, housed at its preferred optimal temperature […]

Article  Video 

EmerAid Omnivore and the EmerAid Critical Care System: Hand and Gavage Feeding

Introduction EmerAid is the first semi-elemental diet designed for critically ill and/or cachexic exotic animals. EmerAid products are truly designed to meet the metabolic needs of critically ill and debilitated exotic animal patients.   Video Produced by Dr. M. Scott Echols and narrated by Dr. Susan Orosz.   EmerAid Nutritional Care System The EmerAid Nutritional […]

Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Parakeet

[…] patients.

Preventive medicine

Obtain a complete history and perform a thorough annual physical examination.
Establish baseline data with regular clinical testing (complete blood count, protein electrophoresis, and plasma biochemistries.
Ensure proper nutrition and husbandry.
Recommend quarantine of newly acquired birds.
Perform additional testing for select diseases based on history and physical exam findings: avian polyoma virus, psittacosis, M. ornithogaster (fecal […]

Article 

Nutritional Management of Obesity in Birds

[…] Parakeet Basic Information Sheet: Canary Basic Information Sheet: Cockatiel Basic Information Sheet: Cockatoo Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Atherosclerosis in Birds Reproductive Emergencies in Birds Physical Examination of the Avian Patient Normal Body Weights in Birds Body Condition Scoring in Birds Formulated Diets in Avian Nutrition Foraging as a Means of Behavior Modification https://lafeber.com/vet/wp-content/uploads/Obese-budgie-bird.jpg Obese budgie

Rebecca Duerr, DVM, MPVM, PhD

[…] California at Davis and an MPVM degree on “The usefulness of initial physical examination findings and simple diagnostics in predicting survival of oiled seabirds through the rehabilitation process”. Rebecca has also completed a PhD at UC Davis on the critical care nutrition of marine birds, with Dr. Kirk Klasing and the Oiled Wildlife Care Network.

Christina Petzinger

She is currently studying under Dr. J. Jill Heatley and Dr. John E. Bauer…

Client Education Handout 

Feeding Snakes

Care of the captive snake requires proper nutrition. All snakes are strict carnivores. Depending on the species of interest, preferred prey items may include appropriately sized rodents, rabbits, fish, birds, reptiles, and even other snakes. This client education handout strives to answer many of the questions that can arise related to feeding snakes and […]

Chris Hanley, DVM, DACZM

[…] became a Diplomate of the American College of Zoological Medicine in 2006. After seven years at the Toledo Zoo, three as an associate and four years as the Director of Animal Health and Nutrition, he moved to the Saint Louis Zoo as a staff veterinarian. In 2019, he became the Assistant Director of Animal Health.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits

This free, R.A.C.E.-approved continuing education webinar, Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits, was presented by Charly Pignon, DVM, DECZM (Small Mammal) on November 7, 2018. Lecture topics of this webinar recording include emergency triage, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, analgesia, fluid therapy, and critical care nutrition.

Article  Presenting Problem 

Presenting problem: Dysecdysis in Reptiles

Introduction Evidence of a difficult shed or dysecdysis is commonly seen in debilitated snake and lizard patients. Dysecdysis is not in itself a primary problem, but rather a sign of an underlying problem (Fig 1) (de la Navarre 2006). Figure 1. Shed-related problems are common in captive snakes and some lizards. Image by Jaymis. Click […]

Emeraid Intensive Care Herbivore 400 g pouch

Intensive Care Nutrition
The Emeraid System for Exotic Animal Critical Care is designed to quickly provide life-saving semi-elemental nutrition for a wide variety of exotic animal patients during the critical first week of care.
Emeraid Intensive Care nutrition products contain high levels of glutamine and arginine for the debilitated patient, purified essential amino acids and hydrolyzed […]

Salmon Oil

Fish oil is added to Emeraid Piscivore in-house, which allows the clinician to vary dietary fat content. We recommend wild-caught salmon oil because it has a relatively long shelf life and does not need to be refrigerated. Our salmon oil is human-grade, without the possible pesticide contamination of farm grown salmon and with the added advantage of having little to no fish smell.

Article 

Supportive Care for Birds: The Basics

[…] oxygen toxicity has been proposed as a potential risk in budgerigar parakeets (Melopsittacus undulates) exposed to high oxygen tensions. Only provide supplemental oxygen when clinically indicated.
 
Provide supplemental nutrition as needed.
Small body size and a rapid metabolic rate means that small avian patients cannot be fasted for an extended length of time. Provide familiar food […]

Emeraid Intensive Care Herbivore 100 g pouch

Intensive Care Nutrition
The Emeraid System for Exotic Animal Critical Care is designed to quickly provide life-saving semi-elemental nutrition for a wide variety of exotic animal patients during the critical first week of care.
Emeraid Intensive Care nutrition products contain high levels of glutamine and arginine for the debilitated patient, purified essential amino acids and hydrolyzed […]