Hermann’s Tortoise (Testudo hermanni)
The Hermann’s tortoise population is divided into western and eastern subspecies, and both are found in the US pet trade.
- The western subspecies, Testudo hermanni hermanni, is found in northeast Spain, southeast France, western or southern Italy and Majorca, Minorca, Sardinia, Sicily, and Corsica.
- The eastern subspecies, T. h. boettgeri, is found in eastern Italy, the Balkans, Greece, and western Turkey.
- A third subspecies, T. h. hercegovinensis, is found in Bosnia and Croatia. This subspecies shares the morphological features and coloring of other subspecies.
The natural habitat of Hermann’s tortoise includes Mediterranean evergreen and oak forests with arid, rocky hill slopes and scrubby vegetation, as well as herbaceous scrub and grassy hillsides. The natural climate tends to be moist during the spring and fall but very dry in the summer.
Hermann’s tortoise is included in CITES Appendix II and it is listed as “near threatened” by the International Union on Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Some captive breeding occurs in the US, and several sanctuaries exist in Europe, such as Le Village Des Tortues in southern France.
Testudo hermanni boettgeri, eastern subspecies
Testudo hermanni hermanni, western subspecies
Testudo hermanni hercegovinensis, Dalmatian tortoise
Testudo hermanni is a medium-sized tortoise. Adults usually range from 13-20 cm (5-8 in). Adults of the western subspecies, Testudo hermanni boettgeri, may reach up to 28 cm (11 in) in length, weighing 3-4 kg (7-9 lb). Sexual dimorphism is moderate, with females on average 12% larger than males.
Shell shape and color
Testudo hermanni has an arched, rounded carapace. The carapace of T. h. hermanni displays intense yellow coloration against a dark background. The plastron has two connected black bands along the central seam. The coloration of the head ranges from olive to yellowish with dark patches. Most individuals also have a characteristic yellow fleck on the cheek.
The plastron of T. h. boettgeri is almost always solid in color with isolated black patches on either side of the central seam. The head is brown to black with fine scales. The toes have five claws, which are darkly colored at the base. The hind legs are noticeably thicker than the forelimbs.
Testudo hermanni are more than 90% herbivorous with a natural diet high in succulent and herbaceous plants. Their diet is similar to Testudo graeca, but this species appears to favor legumes and clovers over grasses. They are opportunistic omnivores and will also occasionally eat invertebrates, such as worms and snails, and carrion. Nevertheless in captivity, it is recommended to manage this species as a strict herbivore. See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet for additional information.
|Temperature||Daytime temperatures should range from 15°C-30°C (60°F-85°F), with a basking spot of 32°C-35°C (90°F-95°F). The temperature gradient should drop to 5°C-25°C (40°F-75°F) at night.|
|Lighting||Artificial UVB lighting is recommended for captive specimens. See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet for additional information.|
|Cage size and design||If possible, outdoor housing is preferred during warm weather months. Most Testudo hermanni are quite hardy and will cope outdoors in well-drained herbaceous areas that are protected and enclosed. Indoor housing must be large enough to allow roaming.|
|Hibernation/aestivation||Tortoises are maintained at 5°C-10°C (40°F-50°F) for hibernation (Divers 2003, Franklin 2007). Free-ranging tortoises usually hibernate for a variable period (usually 4-5 months) between October/November and March/April. In captivity, the recommended maximum length of hibernation is approximately 3 months for a healthy adult tortoise. Of course it is difficult to replicate conditions for safe aestivation and hibernation in captivity, and for this reason some herpetologists elect to maintain tortoises at moderate temperatures that allow normal activity year round.|
Important medical conditions
- Tortoise herpesvirus has been frequently described in Testudo hermanni in Europe. Hermann’s tortoises are more susceptible to tortoise herpesvirus 3 (TeHV3 genotype), which causes particularly severe disease and high morbidity in this species. Testudo hermanni infection from TeHV1 isolates has also occurred.
- Upper respiratory infection
- Aural abscesses
- Diarrhea, frequently caused by ascarids
- Post-hibernation blindness from retinal damage caused by hypovitaminosis A has been described in Testudo hermanni
- There have also been individual reports of paramyxovirus infections (Ferlavirus genus) in Testudo hermanni.
See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet for additional information.
Click here to access LafeberVet’s Testudo Tortoise Fast 5 Quiz.
**Login to view references**
References and further reading
Franklin J. Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni). Exotic DVM 2007;9.4:28-29.
Gramanzini M, Girolamo ND, Gargiulo S, et al. Assessment of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for use in evaluating the effects of dietary and environmental management on Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Am J Vet Res 2013;74(6):918-924.
Ritz J, Clauss M, Streich WJ, et al. Variation in growth and potentially associated health status in Hermann’s and Spur-thighed Tortoise (Testudo hermanni and Testudo graeca). Zoo Biol 2012;31:705-717.
Stöhr AC, Marschang RE. Detection of a Tortoise Herpesvirus Type 1 in a Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni boettgeri) in Germany. J Herpetol Med Surg 2010;20(2-3):61-63.
Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [Van Dijk PP, Iverson JB, Shaffer HB, Bour R, Rhodin AGJ]. 2012. Turtles of the world, 2012 update: annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution, and conservation status. In: Rhodin AGJ, Pritchard PCH, van Dijk PP, Saumure RA, Buhlmann KA, Iverson JB, Mittermeier RA (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5, pp. 000.243-000.328, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v5.2012, www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.
van Dijk PP, Corti C, Mellado VP, Cheylan M. 2004. Testudo hermanni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed on January 7, 2015.
Wegehaupt W. An excursion into the natural habitats of the Dalmation tortoise. Testudo-Farm Web site. Available at http://www.testudo-farm.de/html/dalmatian_tortoise.html. Accessed on March 9, 2015.
Pollock C, Kanis C. Basic information sheet: Marginated tortoise. March 18, 2015. LafeberVet Web site. Available at https://lafeber.com/vet/basic-information-sheet-hermanns-tortoise/