The avian respiratory system has several unique and fascinating adaptations for flight that are important to clinicians. This lecture provides an overview of the anatomical features of the avian respiratory tract and discusses the physiology of the respiratory system. Clinical signs of respiratory disease in birds and how we can use these signs to anatomically locate the origin of the problem to the upper respiratory tract, the major airways, the pulmonary parenchyma, and coelomic cavity are also discussed. The ability to locate the problem can better shape our diagnostic and therapeutic approach to our patients. Emergency management of birds in respiratory distress, with reference to these anatomic locations, is also discussed. The presentation concludes with a review of some important diseases, including diagnosis and treatment, that affect each region of the respiratory tract.