The amphibian examination beings with careful visual observation. Use of a small, transparent container can enhance the amphibian visual examination and minimize handling time (Clayton 2009). In an effort to further minimize handling, be prepared to perform both the exam and diagnostics at the same time (Mylniczenko 2009).
During examination of the skin, be sure to include evaluation of the foot pads and rostrum. To assess the patient’s neurologic status, evaluate movement during observed locomotion, the palpebral blink reflex (excluding caecilians), and the righting reflex. Visit Clinical Approach to Amphibian Emergencies and Assessing the Sick Frog or Toad for tips on manual restraint, equipment needed as well as details of physical examination
Clayton LA, Gore SR. Amphibian emergency medicine. Vet Clin North Am: Exot Anim Pract 10(2):590-594, 2007.
de la Navarre Byron JS. Updated diagnostic techniques in reptiles & amphibians. Proc Annu Conf Western Vet Con 2008. Available at http://www.vin.com/members/cms/project/defaultadv1.aspx?id=3862398&pid=11253&catid=&. Accessed on Oct 18, 2015.
de la Navarre Byron JS. Common procedures in reptiles and amphibians. Vet Clin North Am: Exot Anim Pract 9(2):237-267, 2006.
Ferrel ST. Amphibian medicine and surgery. Proc Annu Conf Amer Board Vet Pract 2012. Available at http://www.vin.com/members/cms/project/defaultadv1.aspx?id=5329658&pid=11351&catid=&. Accessed on Oct 18, 2015.
Mylniczenko N. Amphibians. In: Manual of Exotic Pet Practice. Mitchell MA, Tully TN (eds). Saunders, St. Louis, 2009. P. 73-111.