Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Case Challenge Discussion

Husbandry-related conditions are very common in reptiles, and nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism is frequently recognized in clinical practice. The discussion portion of this Case Challenge reviews pathogenesis, history, examination findings, and diagnostic test results with radiography, and clinical pathology. Key points of case management are explored, including correction of husbandry and dietary factors, management of hypocalcemia, as well as stabilization and supportive care. Prognosis and prevention are also discussed.

Ryan O’Shea, CVT

Ryan O’Shea is a certified veterinary technician and graduate of St. Petersburg College with a bachelor’s degree in veterinary technology…

Article  Teaching Module 

Rabbit Basics Teaching Module

Welcome to LafeberVet’s Rabbit Basics Teaching Module. Level 1 is designed to provide information that the veterinary health professional should know before laying hands on the rabbit patient, including common rabbit breeds, clinically relevant anatomy, behavior, and husbandry.

Article  Slideshow 

Rabbit Husbandry Basics Slideshow

Key points of rabbit husbandry are summarized in this brief Rabbit Husbandry Basics slideshow, designed to serve as a quick clinical refresher for the veterinary health professional. Review the slideshow or read the more detailed Basic Rabbit Care client education handout to review diet, housing, including “bunny proofing”, as well as handling tips for the house rabbit owner.

Article  Webinar 

Sedation and Pain Management of Exotic Companion Mammals

Save the Date for a continuing education webinar presented by Dario d’Ovidio, DVM, MS, SpecPACS, DECZM (Small Mammals) RACE-approved for 1 hour of continuing education.

Dario d’Ovidio, DVM, MS, SpecPACS, DECZM (Small Mammals)

Dario d’Ovidio is a Diplomate of the European College of Zoological Medicine (Small Mammals) and a European Board of Veterinary Specialisation European Veterinary Specialist in Small Mammal Medicine and Surgery. He has also been a member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons since 2009. In 2009 he completed an externship in exotic animal medicine and surgery at Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. d’Ovidio is currently the Head of the Avian and Exotic Pet Service at the Clinica Veterinaria Malpensa in Samarate, Italy. He is also a referral veterinarian for exotic pets in Naples and a visiting Professor at the Universities of Naples and Parma, Italy…


Introduction to Avian Orthopedics

As part of the Lafeber Company Student Program, Dr. David Scott of the Carolina Raptor Center presented this distance-learning event for the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Zoo & Wildlife Society. View this 61-minute presentation, which explores proper triage, prognosis, and repair options for various fractures as well as post-operative care and protocols, including physical therapy.

David Scott, DVM

Dr. David Scott has served as the Staff Veterinarian at the Carolina Raptor Center in Charlotte, North Carolina since 2008. Dr. Scott is the author of Raptor Medicine, Surgery, and Rehabilitation and The Red Tailed Hawk: A Surgical Dissection. He is also a software engineer and has developed the RaptorMed medical records software system, specifically designed for the medical management and husbandry of all types of animals…

Article  Video 

Anesthetic Depth in Exotic Animals: Monitoring the Degree of Central Nervous System Depression

A dedicated anesthetist should be assigned to monitor every patient during the perianesthetic period. The anesthetist is fundamental to patient safety because she assures the patient is not aware, not moving, and not in pain, all while maintaining stable anesthetic depth. A deep plane of anesthesia can lead to hypoventilation and hypoxemia, reduced cardiac output, hypotension, inadequate tissue perfusion, central nervous system (CNS) depression, and prolonged recovery. This review article first explores the stages of anesthesia and then discusses assessment of anesthetic depth in exotic companion mammals, birds, and reptiles.

Article  Teaching Module 

Anesthetic Monitoring Teaching Module

Upon completion of this RACE-approved learning aid, the participant will have a basic clinical understanding of anesthetic monitoring of exotic animal patients: birds, exotic companion mammals, and reptiles.

Article  Teaching Module 

Veterinary Nursing Resources

Many LafeberVet resources can serve as a useful clinical refresher for veterinary technicians or as a learning aid for students of veterinary technology, including educational videos, RACE-approved webinar recordings, teaching modules, and a variety of articles.


Rabbit Basics Teaching Module Quiz

The Rabbit Basics Teaching Module was reviewed and approved by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB) Registry of Approved Continuing Education (RACE) program for 1 hour of continuing education, in jurisdictions which recognize AAVSB RACE approval…


Anesthetic Monitoring Quiz

The Anesthetic Monitoring Teaching Module was reviewed and approved by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB) Registry of Approved Continuing Education (RACE) program for 1 hour of continuing education, in jurisdictions which recognize AAVSB RACE approval.

James Haberfield, BSc, BVMS, PGCBM, MANZCVS (Unusual Pets, Avian Health)

James Haberfield is the founder, director and a current veterinarian at Unusual Pet Vets in Australia with clinics in Perth, Melbourne and Brisbane. Dr. Haberfield earned a Bachelor of Science (BSc) and Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (BVMS) as well as a post-graduate certificate in business management (PGCBM) from Murdoch University…

Case Study  Slideshow 

Case Challenge: An 8-Month-Old Chameleon With Anorexia & Lethargy

An 8-month old female veiled chameleon presents for a 3-day duration of anorexia and lethargy. Use history, physical examination findings, laboratory results and survey radiographs to solve this case challenge.

Case Study  Webinar 

Avian Wildlife Euthanasia Techniques

Wildlife often present to veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators with conditions that warrant euthanasia. It can be difficult, however, to apply mammalian methods of euthanasia to species with unique physiology such as birds. This fall 2020 Dr. Renée Schott will share a non-interactive webinar recording about this important topic. The content for this recording has already been approved by American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Continuing Education.

Article  Video 

Dacryocystitis and Nasolacrimal Flush in Rabbits

Ocular problems are common in both laboratory and pet rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus), and disease of the nasolacrimal duct is one of the most frequently reported ocular diseases in rabbits. This review article features a brief video illustrating this clinical technique plus step-by-step guidance as well as clinically relevant anatomy and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of dacryocystitis.

Joanne Sheen, BVM&S CertZooMed DABVP (Exotic Companion Mammals)

Jo Sheen is an associate veterinarian at Sydney Exotics and Rabbit Vets and she consults as a primary accession and referral exotic animal medicine veterinarian at Veterinary Specialist & Emergency Centre North Shore in Sydney, Australia. Dr. Sheen graduated from the University of Edinburgh in 2004, and gained her postgraduate qualification in zoological and exotic medicine in 2008…

Katie Lennox-Phillibeck

Katie Lennox-Phillibeck is a freelance video editor, videographer, and photographer…

Angela M. Lennox, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice), DABVP (Exotic Companion Mammal Practice), DECZM (Small Mammal Medicine)

Angela Lennox is a graduate of Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Lennox has practiced exclusively exotic animal medicine since 1991 and she is the owner of the Avian and Exotic Animal Clinic of Indianapolis…

Deborah Monks, BVSc (Hons) CertZooMed, FACVSc (Avian Health) DECZM

Deborah Monks is the owner of Brisbane Bird and Exotics Service in Queensland, Australia. After graduating from the University of Queensland…


Tusk Trims in Miniature Pigs

Both males and female pigs possess modified upper and lower canine teeth or tusks, however, the tusks of the male retain an open root that allows these teeth to grow throughout life. Tusks can become long and extremely sharp and trims may be necessary to prevent injury to humans, other animals, household furniture, flooring, or even the pig itself. This brief article discusses relevant anatomy, equipment needed, potential complications, sedation, and step-by-step advice for successfully completing this clinical technique.


Hoof Trims in Miniature Pigs

Hooves that are not maintained can overgrow and curl, resulting in pain, difficulty walking, and damage to the soft tissue structures of the foot. The medial and lateral digits, that do not contact the ground much, will grow long and require trimming in all pet pigs. Therefore most pigs require hoof trims every 6-12 months. This brief article discusses relevant anatomy, equipment needed, potential complications, sedation, and step-by-step advice for successfully completing this clinical technique.

Article  Case Study 

2020 AEMV Student Case Report Contest

Lafeber Company was proud to sponsor the 2020 Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Student Case Report Contest. Veterinary students from all over the world were encouraged to write a 2-page case report about an exotic companion mammal seen at their college of veterinary medicine or during a clinical experience. Submissions closed in March and judges from the Research Committee evaluated the 15 case reports received from eight countries. Judges were blinded to the students, mentors, co-authors, and institutions at which the cases were seen. Read the brief summaries of each winning case report.


Reptile Wildlife Euthanasia Techniques Quiz

Post test for the Reptile Wildlife Euthanasia Techniques webinar

Distance-Learning Event: “An Introduction to Exotic Pet Medicine” by Dr. Greg Rich for Texas A&M CVM

The Lafeber Company Student Program supports the growth of zoological medicine in veterinary medical schools by sponsoring speakers and other educational events.


A Necropsy Guide to Serpentes

The postmortem exam is a key diagnostic tool in understanding the reasons for a snake’s morbidity and mortality. Necropsies can provide valuable information to provide a risk assessment for other animals in a population or collection and can help provide closure for a grieving owner. This manuscript reviews the snake necropsy in a systemic, thorough manner, describing normal anatomy and proper collection technique from head to tail.


COVID Content Catch-Up

According to LitCovid, an open-resource literature hub developed with the support of the US National Institute of Health, over 14,000 relevant articles have been posted to PubMed on the 2019 novel coronavirus. Thousands more articles are available as pre-prints. Obviously this explosion of information can be intimidating for the busy veterinarian, but you can use the national and international resources (listed in Table) to stay current on the latest information. Then turn to this review article and our supplemental LafeberVet Literature Search as well as LafeberVet’s Coronavirus in Animals and Determinants of Viral Infectionto dive a bit deeper into our evolving knowledge of SARS-CoV-2.

Article  Case Study  Webinar 

Reptile Wildlife Euthanasia Techniques

“The question is not, can they reason? Nor, can they talk? But, can they suffer?” –Jeremy Bentham, philosopher, 1780

Dr. Renée Schott presented a live, interactive webinar on reptile wildlife euthanasia techniques. View the webinar recording today. Wildlife often present to veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators with conditions that warrant euthanasia. It can be difficult, however, to apply mammalian methods of euthanasia to species with unique physiology such as reptiles. This interactive presentation will use cases to discuss practical euthanasia methods for reptiles and the physiology behind these methods. Emphasis will be placed on freshwater turtles as these represent some physiological extremes.


Flight Mechanics & Ethical Concerns Quiz

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Pour les vétérinaires. Par les vétérinaires.

Le site est conçu pour une utilisation par les vétérinaires. Il est ouvert aux vétérinaires diplômés, aux techniciens vétérinaires diplômés, aux […]


Snake Necropsy Data Collection Form and Checklist

Download the PDF of this Snake Necropsy Data Collection Form and Checklist.

Brian Stacy, DVM, PhD, DACVP

Brian Stacy earned his DVM from the University of Georgia at Athens before completing an Anatomic Pathology Residency at the University of California at Davis and the Zoological Society of San Diego…

Richard S. Funk, MA, DVM

Dr. Richard Funk completed a master’s degree in zoology with a thesis in herpetology. He then earned his DVM at the Ohio State University. Dr. Funk has been very active in the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians, having served as the 2003-2004 President and co-chairman of the Legislation and Welfare Committee. He has also served on the ARAV publications editorial board and he has organized and led a number of wet labs at ARAV annual conferences. Dr. Funk has a number of publications in veterinary medicine, mostly on reptiles, including chapters in all three volumes of the Mader Reptile Medicine and Surgery texts.

Louisa Asseo DVM DABVP (Canine/Feline Practice)

Louisa Asseo graduated from the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine in 2002. She has worked in private practices in the Bay and Sacramento areas of California since graduation, focusing on both general practice and emergency medicine. In addition to cats and dogs, her practice focuses on medicine and surgery for reptiles, exotic companion mammals, poultry, and miniature pigs. In 2016, she founded Oasis Veterinary Hospital in the east San Francisco Bay area of California…

Chris Hanley, DVM, DACZM

Dr. Chris Hanley became a Diplomate of the American College of Zoological Medicine in 2006. After seven years at the Toledo Zoo, three as an associate and four years as the Director of Animal Health and Nutrition, he moved to the Saint Louis Zoo as a staff veterinarian. In 2019, he became the Assistant Director of Animal Health.

Shannon Martinson, DVM, MVSc, DACVP

Dr. Shannon Martinson is an Assistant Professor in Anatomic Pathology in the Department of Pathology and Microbiology at the Atlantic Veterinary College of the University of Prince Edward Island. Dr. Martinson is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathology and the author of several publications…

Article  Video  Webinar 

Flight Mechanics & Ethical Concerns

Dr. Todd E. Driggers presented this live webinar event on Flight Mechanics, Parrot Welfare, and Ethical Concerns. View the video recording, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. Feather trimming birds in captivity has been a common practice performed for many reasons, including fear of loss, safety, and the ability to control and tame. If the gold standard for animal welfare is freedom and feather destructive behavior is a reliable indicator of scientifically studied animal welfare, feather trimming impacts how the animal feels, functions, and prohibits natural responses to positive or aversive stimuli. Perhaps it is time to reflect on the benefits and risks of feather trims through the lens of animal welfare. At a minimum, the degrees of severity of the current techniques need redressing when we consider the experience of the bird.


Snake Anatomy Basics

Snakes are members of the class Reptilia, order Squamata, and suborder Serpentes. There are over 3,500 species of snakes in the world, however, for the most part, the anatomy of the snake is consistent across species.

Snakes have a long narrow body adapted for crawling and their internal anatomy has evolved to fit into a long […]


LafeberVet Lit Search: SARS-CoV-2


Over 14,000 articles have been posted to PubMed on the 2019 novel coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2. Thousands more articles are available as pre-prints. Obviously this explosion of information can be intimidating for the busy veterinarian, but you can use the resources listed in Table 1 to stay current on the latest information. Then turn to […]


Coronavirus in Animals: Implications for Veterinary Staff

Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses named for the crown-like spike proteins on their surface. Coronaviruses cause disease in humans and animals, often circulating among camels, cats, and bats. Ferrets are susceptible to infection by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-COv-1), but pathogenicity and host susceptibility can differ based on the viral infective dose and laboratory SARS coronavirus strain. Studies are ongoing to investigate the respiratory pathology and transmission of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) in experimental ferrets.


Determinants of Viral Infection: An Addendum to Coronaviruses in Animals

What determines the viral host range?

One of the critical determinants of viral host range is the interaction between the coronavirus spike (S) protein (Fig 1) and the host cell receptor. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor for the attachment and uptake of the coronavirus that caused Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-1), is widely expressed […]

Giacomo Rossi, DVM, PhD, MS, DECZM (WHP), EBVS

Dr. Giacomo Rossi is a Full Professor of General Pathology, Physiopathology, and Immunopathology at the University of Camerino (Italy). He serves as the Director of the Animal Pathology Laboratory. Giacomo is the author and editor of several books related to avian and exotic animal medicine and he has published over 300 scientific and veterinary papers. He is also a known national and international speaker on topics related to the pathology and medicine of pet birds, zoo animals and wildlife.

Thomas M. Donnelly, DVM, MS, DACLAM, DABVP (Exotic Companion Mammal Practice), DECZM

Dr. Tom Donnelly currently works at the French National Veterinary School in Paris where he is a Research Professor and co-service head of the exotic animal service. Tom is the author of over 100 scientific and clinical publications, including chapters in “Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine Surgery” and co-editor of “Veterinary Clinical Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets.”


In Memoriam: Dr. Pete Sakas

All of us at Lafeber Company were greatly saddened to learn of the passing of Dr. Peter Sakas. Dr. Pete Sakas joined Niles Animal Hospital in 1980 while still a veterinary medical student, working under Dr. T.J. Lafeber during his college breaks. Dr. Lafeber was so impressed with Dr. Sakas that he was hired immediately after he graduated in 1983. When Dr. Lafeber left clinical practice to build Lafeber Company in 1985, he sold his practice, Niles Animal Hospital, to Dr. Sakas.

Todd Driggers, DVM

Todd Driggers is a 1994 graduate of Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine. After graduation, he interned at the Avian and Exotic Animal Clinic in Indianapolis and he eventually moved to Arizona, starting the exotic practice at Mesa Veterinary Hospital. In 1996, he started Arizona’s first exclusive exotic animal practice, serving clients and small zoos. Currently, he has both a mobile practice and a stationary three-doctor practice, The Avian and Exotic Animal Clinic of Arizona…


Avian Anesthesia post test

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Article  Video  Webinar 

Avian Anesthesia Webinar

Dr. Lorenzo Crosta will present this live, interactive, webinar on the clinical perspectives of avian anesthesia. After briefly reviewing clinically relevant avian anatomy and physiology, Dr. Crosta will touch upon injectable anesthesia, then discuss in detail preanesthesia and inhalation anesthesia in clinical practice. The discussion will then move onto monitoring the avian patient, from vital parameters to capnography, doppler, electrocardiography, and pulse oximetry. Dr. Crosta will also discuss analgesia, intra-operative fluid therapy, as well as specific concerns related to avian anesthesia, such as positioning the patient, hypocalcemia, air sac cannulation, as well as management of diving birds. This seminar will conclude with practical tips for safe and uneventful patient recovery.

Lorenzo Crosta med vet, PhD, GP Cert (Exotic Animal), DECZM, EBVS

Lorenzo Crosta med vet, PhD, GP Cert (Exotic Animal), Diplomate ECZM, EBVS® European Veterinary Specialist in Zoo Health Management is an Associate Professor of Avian and Zoological Medicine at the University of Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Australia. He serves as the Director of the Avian, Reptile, and Exotic Pet Hospital, and in 2019 he was named the TJ Lafeber Avian Practitioner of the Year. Dr. Crosta earned his Doctorate of Veterinary Medicine…

Ready for the Holidays?

Unfortunately, emergency medicine and critical care don’t stop for the holiday season, so we are just sending a little reminder to make sure that your cupboard contains enough EmerAid for any crisis over the holidays.


Critical Care Techniques for Avian Wildlife Emergencies Post Test

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