Parrot Anatomy Basics

What is a parrot?

Parrots are primarily arboreal, diurnal birds found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Parrots belong to Order Psittaciformes and are divided into three families. There are over 350 species of psittacine birds or parrots.

Class: Aves

Order: Psittaciformes

Family: Cacatuidae: black and white cockatoos, cockatiels

Teaching Module 

Avian Quick Links

Photo credit: Jill Murray (left) Bothered by Bees (second from right), Ingrid Taylor (right)

 

Objectives

LafeberVet’s list of avian medicine quick links will assist your navigation of some of the avian medicine resources on LafeberVet. Educate yourself before laying hands on the avian patient by reviewing the basics of avian anatomy and physiology as well […]

Teaching Module 

Bird Basics Teaching Module

Objectives

What are the basics of avian medicine that a novice veterinary health professional should know before laying hands on the companion parrot patient? Upon completion of this learning aid, the participant will have a basic clinical understanding of avian anatomy, psittacine handling and restraint, history and physical examination, zoonotic concerns, nutrition, basic diagnostic and therapeutic […]

Quiz 

Test Your Knowledge: Avian Neonatology & Pediatrics

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Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Pionus

The birds of genus Pionus are native to regions of Mexico, Central America, and/or South America. Pionus parrots are often described as “small Amazon parrots” because of their stocky builds and often short, square tails. This information sheet reviews natural history, taxonomy, and conservation status, as well as physical descriptions, husbandry needs, behavior, including the Pionus “snarfle or snuffle”, normal physiologic data and anatomy, restraint, and important medical conditions.

Article  Webinar 

Avian Neonatology and Pediatrics

This live webinar was presented by Lorenzo Crosta, med Vet, PhD, DECZM, EBVS European Veterinary Specialist in Zoo Health Management. The objective of this presentation was to assist the exotic animal practitioner, with little or no experience in avian neonatology and pediatrics. This presentation discussed the logical diagnostic plan in the young bird. The approach to common pediatric conditions, ranging from developmental and orthopedic problems to common traumatic injuries and infectious diseases, was also be explored. Practical clinical examples were presented.

Article  Product information 

Lafeber’s New Health & Nutrition Kits

The majority of bird owners need guidance when it comes to avian nutrition, and it can be time consuming!

Our new Health and Nutrition Kits help your team save time by providing clients with instructions and tips on how to convert from a seed mix diet to nutritionally balanced diets along with 5 trial size portions of […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Avian Cardiology Essentials

Cardiovascular disease commonly occurs in companion birds and poses a serious threat to the quality of life and longevity of many avian species. This live, interactive, RACE-approved webinar was presented by avian veterinarian, Brenna Fitzgerald. Topics discussed include key features of avian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, risk factors, as well as specific clinical disease states, including atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and pericardial disease and effusion. This lecture also reviewed essential elements of a diagnostic workup, and current treatment approaches that can improve longevity and quality of life for these patients.

Quiz 

Test Your Knowledge: Avian Radiology

Test Your Knowledge: View the RACE-approved webinar recording on “Avian Radiology: Basic Principles, Reference Values & Clinical Cases” by Minh Huynh, DVM, MRCVS, DECZM (Avian), DACZM, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.

Quiz 

Ultrasound in Birds: From Finch to Goose Quiz

Ultrasound in Birds: From Finch to Goose Quiz

Quiz 

Zoonoses Associated with Exotic Pets Quiz

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Le site Lafervet.com est conçu pour une utilisation par les vétérinaires. Il est ouvert aux vétérinaires diplômés, aux techniciens vétérinaires diplômés, aux […]

Article  Video  Webinar 

Avian Radiology: Basic Principles, Reference Values & Clinical Cases

Save the Date for a continuing education webinar presented by Minh Huynh, DVM, MRCVS, DECZM (Avian), DAZCM. Avian radiography is an invaluable tool to assess internal disorders and to screen for subclinical disease in birds. Coelomic organs can be examined for cardiorespiratory, digestive, or urogenital disease. Radiographs also extremely useful to diagnose appendicular skeleton lesions, especially in case of trauma. Proper positioning is crucial for accurate interpretation and general anesthesia or sedation is usually recommended for optimal image acquisition. Standard and non-standard views as well as indications and limitations of radiography will be discussed. This presentation will also explore a standardized, step-by-step evaluation of conventional radiographs. A review of the current literature will be used to enhance this discussion of clinical cases.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Ultrasound in Birds

Dr. Petra Schnitzer presented this distance-learning event for the veterinary medical students at the University of Georgia at Athens College of Veterinary Medicine as part of the Lafeber Company Student Program. Stay Tuned: This program is being submitted for approval by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Continuing Education for 1 hour of continuing education credit.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Zoonoses Associated with Exotic Pets

Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans, and some estimate that 75% of emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic. Many of these zoonoses come from non-domestic animals. This RACE-approved webinar recording presented by Marcy Souza, DVM, MPH MPPA, DABVP (Avian), DACVPM provided an overview of common zoonoses associated with non-domestic or exotic pets, including but not limited to salmonellosis, influenza, chlamydiosis, monkeypox, rabies, and various parasitic diseases. Recent outbreaks of zoonoses in exotic pets and people are also highlighted. Dr. Souza also discusses the potential role of non-domestic species in the emergence and/or transmission of novel pathogens in the future.

Client Education Handout 

Care of Toucans, Toucanets & Aracaris

This client education handout reviews basic care of birds in family Ramphastidae: toucans, toucanettes, and aracaris. Topics covered in detail include housing, such as space and temperature, as well as well as diet and breeding.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Ramphastidae

The birds of family Ramphastidae are found in South and Central America, from central Mexico to southern Brazil, and include the large toucans, the smaller aracaris, and the very small toucanets. This information sheet reviews natural history and taxonomy, as well as diet, housing, normal physiologic data and anatomy, restraint, behavior, and important medical conditions seen in family Ramphastidae.

Article 

The Importance of Next-Generation Sequencing in Avian Veterinary Medicine

Effective treatment of diseases requires accurate diagnose, and infectious diseases in avian medicine present special diagnostic challenges. Molecular diagnostic tools, such as DNA sequencing, are available to aid the urgent medical need to detect and identify all culprits that cause infections. Next-generation DNA sequencing offers the ability to diagnose infections using microbial DNA as the analyte, thus bypassing culture testing along with its deficiencies. This article briefly explains this useful laboratory technique as well as its applications in avian medicine…

Video  Webinar 

Medical, Nursing & Cosmetic Procedures of Birds of Prey

Dr. Jaime Samour presented Part 1 (medical and nursing procedures) of his presentation for the Avian, Wildlife & Exotics club at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, and Part 2 (cosmetic procedures) for Mississippi State University. These distance-learning events were hosted by the Lafeber Company Student Program.

Form-Questionnaire 

Shelter Avian Intake Physical Exam Form

The California Veterinary Emergency Team (CVET) Shelter Entrance Avian Examination Form, shared by Dr. Michelle Hawkins, includes entrance exam considerations helpful in a triage situation. This form is divided into four sections: animal and owner information, physical findings, problem list/medication and plan, as well notes.

2021 T.J. Lafeber Avian Practitioner of the Year

Thirty-three exceptional avian veterinarians from all around the world were nominated for the 2021 T.J. Lafeber Avian Practitioner of the Year. The independent Selection Committee narrowed this list to four finalists and the Award recipient, Dr. Yvonne van Zeeland, was announced during the Plenary Session at the 2021 ExoticsCon…

Client Education Handout 

Lead Exposure in Backyard Poultry

Although birds are kept for a variety of reasons, many owners raise backyard chickens for personal consumption of meat and eggs. There is some concerns that poultry can be exposed to heavy metals, such as lead, and then pass lead on to people in their eggs or meat. Poultry are most commonly exposed to lead through soil that has been contaminated by lead-based paint flakes that have come off older buildings or even…

Client Education Handout 

Care of the Backyard Chicken

This client education handout reviews basic care of backyard poultry, specifically the pet chicken. Topics covered in more detail include housing, such as space, substrate, temperature, ventilation, predator proofing, perching, nestboxes, and sanitation, as well as diet and basic principles of biosecurity and quarantine.

Client Education Handout 

Poultry and Public Health

Although keeping backyard poultry can be enjoyable, owners should be aware that healthy birds can sometimes carry harmful germs that make people sick. Public health concerns linked to backyard poultry include infection caused by Salmonella spp., E. coli, Campylobacter spp., and avian influenza. These germs can cause a variety of illnesses in people, ranging from minor skin infections to serious illnesses that can cause death. High-risk individuals include children less than 5 years of age, adults over 65 years of age, pregnant women, and those with compromised immune systems. Whether the owner is building their very first coop or is a seasoned backyard poultry owner, this client handout provide tips on simple things that can be done to stay healthy.

Quiz 

Fowl Detectives Post-Test

Post test for Fowl Detectives: Using Physical Exam & Clinical Signs to Diagnose Poultry Diseases

Article  Webinar 

Australian Wildfire & Wildlife Insights

The 2019/2020 wildfires put the plight of Australian wildlife and the realities of climate change on the international stage. This RACE-approved webinar recording consists of two, 1-hour seminars that explore the impact of Australian bushfires on wildlife. Part 1, presented by Dr Talbot, explores the basics of patient assessment and triage as well as management of pain, smoke inhalation, and burns for the unique species found in Australia. Part 2 summarizes Dr. Campbell-Ward’s research evaluating the key rescue/rehabilitation-related wild animal welfare outcomes and ethical dilemmas encountered during the Australian bushfires.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Fowl Detectives

View this RACE-approved webinar recording “Fowl Detectives: Using Physical Exam & Clinical Signs to Diagnose Poultry Diseases” presented by Teresa Morishita, DVM, PhD, DACPV. This program is approved for 1 hour of continuing credit in jurisdictions that recognize American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB) Registry of Approved Continuing Education (RACE) approval.

Quiz 

Post-test: Structure and Function in Raptors

This program is approved by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Approved Continuing Education (R.A.C.E.) to offer a total of 1.00 CE Credits (1.00 max) being available to any one veterinarian: and/or 1.00 Veterinary Technician CE Credits (1.00 max). This approval is valid in jurisdictions which recognize AAVSB RACE; however, participants are responsible for ascertaining each board’s CE requirements. RACE does not “accredit” or “endorse” or “certify” any program or person, nor does RACE approval

Article  Video  Webinar 

Structure and Function in Raptors

This RACE-approved, continuing education webinar recording, presented by Dr. Jaime Samour, is a terrific opportunity to review (or discover) avian anatomy in general and raptor anatomy in particular. This 1-hour system-by-system review begins with the integumentary system, including plumage, beak, and talons, then moves through the raptor musculoskeletal, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and male and female reproductive systems, as well as circulation, brain and intelligence, plus special senses. View the 1 hour webinar recording, then take the brief quiz to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.

Video  Webinar 

Liberating Wings: The Possibility of Transformative Parrot Conservation

Dr. LoraKim Joyner of One Earth Conservation presented this distance-learning event on parrot conservation for the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Wildlife, Zoological, and Avian Animal Medicine Club as part of the Lafeber Company Student Program.

Thank You For Attending

Thank you for attending this RACE-approved webinar “Avian Neonatology & Pediatrics” presented by Dr. Lorenzo Crosta.

Video  Webinar 

An Introduction to Exotic Animal Medicine

Dr. Gregory Rich of Avian & Exotic Animal Hospital of Louisiana presented this distance-learning event on exotic animal medicine for Texas A&M University ZEW Club. This presentation was sponsored by the Lafeber Company Student Program.

Video  Webinar 

Avian Raw Whole Food Nutrition

Dr. Jason Crean of Saint Xavier University presented this distance-learning event on whole food nutrition in birds for the University of Minnesota College Veterinary Medicine ZEAW Club. This presentation was sponsored by the Lafeber Company Student Program.

Article  Quiz  Video 

Introduction to Avian Orthopedics

As part of the Lafeber Company Student Program, Dr. David Scott of the Carolina Raptor Center presented this distance-learning event for the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Zoo & Wildlife Society. View this 61-minute presentation, RACE-approved for 1 hour of continuing education. Dr. Scott explores proper triage, prognosis, and repair options for various fractures as well as post-operative care and protocols, including physical therapy.

Article  Video 

Anesthetic Depth in Exotic Animals: Monitoring the Degree of Central Nervous System Depression

A dedicated anesthetist should be assigned to monitor every patient during the perianesthetic period. The anesthetist is fundamental to patient safety because she assures the patient is not aware, not moving, and not in pain, all while maintaining stable anesthetic depth. A deep plane of anesthesia can lead to hypoventilation and hypoxemia, reduced cardiac output, hypotension, inadequate tissue perfusion, central nervous system (CNS) depression, and prolonged recovery. This review article first explores the stages of anesthesia and then discusses assessment of anesthetic depth in exotic companion mammals, birds, and reptiles.

Article  Teaching Module 

Anesthetic Monitoring Teaching Module

Upon completion of this RACE-approved learning aid, the participant will have a basic clinical understanding of anesthetic monitoring of exotic animal patients: birds, exotic companion mammals, and reptiles.

Article  Teaching Module 

Veterinary Nursing Resources

Many LafeberVet resources can serve as a useful clinical refresher for veterinary technicians or as a learning aid for students of veterinary technology, including educational videos, RACE-approved webinar recordings, teaching modules, and a variety of articles.

Quiz 

Anesthetic Monitoring Quiz

The Anesthetic Monitoring Teaching Module was reviewed and approved by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB) Registry of Approved Continuing Education (RACE) program for 1 hour of continuing education, in jurisdictions which recognize AAVSB RACE approval.

Quiz 

Flight Mechanics & Ethical Concerns Quiz

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Article  Video  Webinar 

Flight Mechanics & Ethical Concerns

Dr. Todd E. Driggers presented this live webinar event on Flight Mechanics, Parrot Welfare, and Ethical Concerns. View the video recording, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. Feather trimming birds in captivity has been a common practice performed for many reasons, including fear of loss, safety, and the ability to control and tame. If the gold standard for animal welfare is freedom and feather destructive behavior is a reliable indicator of scientifically studied animal welfare, feather trimming impacts how the animal feels, functions, and prohibits natural responses to positive or aversive stimuli. Perhaps it is time to reflect on the benefits and risks of feather trims through the lens of animal welfare. At a minimum, the degrees of severity of the current techniques need redressing when we consider the experience of the bird.

Quiz 

Avian Anesthesia post test

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Article  Video  Webinar 

Avian Anesthesia Webinar

Dr. Lorenzo Crosta will present this live, interactive, webinar on the clinical perspectives of avian anesthesia. After briefly reviewing clinically relevant avian anatomy and physiology, Dr. Crosta will touch upon injectable anesthesia, then discuss in detail preanesthesia and inhalation anesthesia in clinical practice. The discussion will then move onto monitoring the avian patient, from vital parameters to capnography, doppler, electrocardiography, and pulse oximetry. Dr. Crosta will also discuss analgesia, intra-operative fluid therapy, as well as specific concerns related to avian anesthesia, such as positioning the patient, hypocalcemia, air sac cannulation, as well as management of diving birds. This seminar will conclude with practical tips for safe and uneventful patient recovery.

Ready for the Holidays?

Unfortunately, emergency medicine and critical care don’t stop for the holiday season, so we are just sending a little reminder to make sure that your cupboard contains enough EmerAid for any crisis over the holidays.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Critical Care Techniques for Avian Wildlife Emergencies

Dr. Heather Barron presented this webinar on avian critical care. View a recording of the live, interactive event, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. The goal of wildlife medicine is always eventual release and therefore triage of avian wildlife may vary based on case load, regulations, and the presenting situation. Dr. Barron examines the guidelines used to set triage policy and the reasons a bird may not be releasable or have a good quality of life in captivity. She then discusses practical measures intended to alleviate suffering and improve the odds of patient survival, such as fluid support, analgesia, evaluation of blood volume, and transfusion. This presentation concludes with a brief discussion on assessing life and euthanasia.

Quiz 

Post Test: Avian Nutrition Basics

View the on-demand recording of this non-interactive webinar, then take the brief quiz. With a passing grade of 70% or higher, you will receive a continuing education certificate for 1 hour of continuing education credit in jurisdictions that recognize American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Approved Continuing Education approval.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Clinical Avian Nutrition for Veterinary Health Professionals

Dr. Susan Orosz presented this live, interactive webinar event on the clinical perspectives of avian nutrition. How can veterinary health professionals best address the nutritional needs of the companion bird in the exam room?

Article  Slideshow  Video  Webinar 

Avian Nutrition Basics

This 1-hour, R.A.C.E.-approved webinar recording is designed to impart a basic understanding of avian nutrition for the veterinary health professional as well as students in these fields. Viewing of this recorded is strongly recommended before viewing the recording of the live webinar event Clinical Avian Nutrition for Veterinary Health Professionals by Susan Orosz, PhD, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice), DECZM.

Article 

2019 Avian Practitioner of the Year

When nominations closed for the 2019 T.J. Lafeber Avian Practitioner of the Year, a list of 24 outstanding avian veterinarians had been submitted for consideration. The independent Selection Committee narrowed the list to five finalists and the Award recipient, Dr. Lorenzo Crosta, was announced during the Opening Session at ExoticsCon 2019.

Article  Video 

A Guide to Avian Necropsy

The postmortem examination is a valuable part of the diagnostic work-up. Shared by a veterinary pathologist with a special interest in birds, this guide to avian necropsy provides comprehensive instructions for the avian postmortem exam. This article offers step-by-step guidance on avian necropsy with a variety of photographs and video clips that illustrate useful clinical techniques and normal avian anatomy. Feel confident in your knowledge of avian anatomy? You can also “Test Yourself” by identifying the structures shown in four separate images.

Client Education Handout 

Reading Bird Body Language

Careful observation of avian body language can provide clues when a bird is receptive to play or handling. Download this client education handout to share helpful advice on interpreting psittacine bird postures and behaviors.

Quiz 

Post-Test: Minimizing Stress to Avian Patients

View the recording of this live webinar event, then take the brief quiz. With a passing grade of 70% or higher, you will receive a continuing education certificate for 1 hour of continuing education credit in jurisdictions that recognize American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Approved Continuing Education approval.