Keven Flammer, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice)

Dr. Keven Flammer is a professor in Companion and Wild Avian Medicine at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Flammer is board-certified in avian practice…


How to Select an Antibiotic

The first step in antimicrobial drug selection is to make sure treatment is necessary. Companion birds often display nonspecific signs of illness, and the avian clinician should be reasonably sure that an infection is present before using antibiotics. The presence of a pathogen on culture or Gram stain does not necessarily mean treatment is warranted. Small numbers of potential pathogens are frequently isolated from the choana and cloaca of healthy birds.