Presenting Problem: Dyspnea in Ferrets

This presenting problem article reviews the basic approach to the dyspneic ferret beginning with clinical signs of the dyspneic ferret, key points of urgent care, as well as case management. This latter section reviews tips on taking the history, performing the physical exam, important differential diagnoses, as well as the diagnostic/therapeutic approach . . .

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Belser JA, Katz JM, Tumpey TM. The ferret as a model organism to study influenza A virus infection. Dis Model Mech 4(5):575-579, 2011.

Darrow BG, Mans C, Drees R, et al. Pulmonary blastomycosis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 23(2):158-164, 2014.

Eshar D, Mayer J, Parry NM, et al. Disseminated, histologically confirmed Cryptococcus spp. infection in a domestic ferret. J Am Vet Med Assoc 236(7):770-774, 2010.

Fox JG, Marini RP (eds). Biology and Diseases of the Ferret, 3rd ed. Ames, IA: John Wiley & Sons; 2014.

Garner MM, Ramsell K, Morera N, et al. Clinicopathologic features of a systemic coronavirus-associated disease resembling feline infectious peritonitis in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). Vet Pathol 45(2):236-246, 2008.

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Martínez J, Martorell J, Abarca ML, et al. Pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia and mediastinitis in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) associated with Pseudomonas luteola infection. J Comp Pathol 146(1):4-10, 2012.

Menicagli F, Lanza A, Sbrocca F, et al. A case of advanced second-degree atrioventricular block in a ferret secondary to lymphoma. Open Vet J. 6(1): 68-70, 2016.

Morrisey JK. Ferrets. In: Carpenter JW, Marion CJ (eds). Exotic Animal Formulary, 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2013: 569-572.

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Further reading

Bezos J, Álvarez-Carrión B, Rodríguez-Bertos A, et al. Evidence of disseminated infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in a pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Res Vet Sci 109:52-55, 2016.

Desmarchelier M, Lair S, Dunn M, Langlois I. Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 233(8):1297-1301, 2008.

DuVal-Hudelson KA. Coccidiomycosis in three European ferrets. J Zoo Wildl Med 21(3):353-357, 1990.

Lenhard A. Blastomycosis in a ferret. J Am Vet Med Assoc 186(1):70-72, 1985.

Malik R, Martin P, McGill J, et al. Successful treatment of invasive nasal cryptococcosis in a ferret. Aust Vet J 78(3):158-159, 2000.

Williams J. What is your diagnosis? J Am Vet Med Assoc 217(11):1625-1626, 2000.

Wylie SE, Kelman M, Ward MP. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of canine distemper disease in dogs and ferrets in Australia, 2006-2014. Aust Vet J 94(7):15-22, 2016.

To cite this page:

Pollock CG. Presenting problem: Dyspnea in ferrets. LafeberVet Web site. Available at