Presenting problem: The Fluffed and Ruffled Bird

A relaxed, comfortable bird may briefly fluff out its feathers before its plumage again appears flat and sleek. The critically ill bird may exhibit persistently fluffed and ruffled plumage . . .

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Blanchard S. Reading body language. In: Blanchard S. Sally Blanchard’s Companion Parrot Handbook. PBIC, Inc; Alameda, CA; 1999. P. 162-168.

Bowles H, Lichtenberger M, Lennox A. Emergency and critical care of pet birds. Vet Clin North America Exotic Animal Practice 10(2):355, 2007.