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Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits

Save the date for this free R.A.C.E.-approved continuing education webinar, Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits, presented by Charly Pignon, DVM, DECZM (Small Mammal) on November 7, 2018. Lecture topics will include emergency triage, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, analgesia, fluid therapy, and critical care nutrition. Register today and join us for this interactive event.

Fluid Therapy in the Avian Patient

Crystalloids, also called replacement fluids, are the mainstay of rehydration and maintenance fluid therapy, and they can be used together with colloids during resuscitation. Crystalloids are fluids containing sodium chloride and other solutes that are capable of distributing to all body fluid compartments. Replacement fluids have electrolyte concentrations that resemble extracellular fluid, whereas maintenance fluids contain less sodium (40-60 mEq/L) and more potassium (15-30 mEq/L). The most commonly used replacement fluids are 0.9% saline, lactated Ringer’s solution, Normosol-R, or…

Article 

Fluid Administration in Exotic Companion Mammals

The principles of fluid therapy are basically the same in exotic companion mammals as in other species. The biggest difference is that changes can occur very rapidly in these tiny patients. For instance, fluids should almost always be warmed or your patient will cool down quickly. Intraosseous or intravenous fluids can be heated with…

Article 

Fluid Administration in Reptiles

The basic principles of fluid therapy are the same in the reptile as seen in birds and mammals, however reptile anatomy and physiology make some features of this crucial supportive care procedure unique. This article reviews fluid resuscitation with the use of crystalloid fluids and colloids, indications for replacement fluids including signs of dehydration and osmolarity values reported in reptiles. Routes of fluid administration in reptiles are described include subcutaneous, oral, soaking, intracoelomic, intraosseous, and intravenous via the cephalic vein, jugular vein, and in rare instances intracardiac catheter placement. Patient monitoring, including blood pressure measurement and signs of overhydration, are also explored.

Article 

Fluid Administration in Amphibians

Most amphibians do not drink water. Fluid instead diffuses across semipermeable skin, and sometimes gills, directly from water or moist substrates. Excess fluid is excreted primarily by the kidneys, while conserving electrolyte levels. In some amphibians, skin is also involved in osmoregulation and respiration.

Article 

Top Ten Fluid Therapy Facts

Water is the single most important medium for sustaining life. Although there are unique considerations for avian, exotic companion mammal, and reptile patients, the basic principles of fluid therapy hold true for all animals. This brief article reviews 10 important facts related to water and organ homeostasis.

Article 

Evaluating Hydration Status in Birds

Physical examination parameters used to assess hydration are essentially the same in birds and mammals. Reduced elasticity of the skin or decreased skin turgor is seen with dehydration however normal bird skin is relatively inelastic and checking skin turgor is not as straightforward as in mammals. To check skin turgor in birds, tent the skin on the on the…

Article  Video 

Subcutaneous Fluids in Birds

The subcutaneous route is the most common method of fluid administration in the avian patient. Subcutaneous fluids are an excellent way to provide maintenance fluids or to correct mild dehydration in birds. This video clip and article with still images describe the equipment needed and the technique involved in this supportive care procedure.

Fluids are most commonly given in the inguinal space (crural patagium). With the bird secured by an assistant, have them extend one of the bird’s legs out and to one side. Wet down the area on the inner thigh to see the skin better at a point about halfway between…