Article 

Administration of Medication in Birds: Injections

The avian patient poses special challenges for delivery of injectable medications. Although the techniques involved are not unique to birds, special knowledge of avian anatomy as well as delicate, proficient technical skills are required. Depending on the species, the individual, and the clinical situation, injections can be delivered by intramuscular, intravenous, intraosseous, subcutaneous, intratracheal, or intracoelomic routes. Parenteral drug administration provides the advantage of delivering a precise dose when a rapid therapeutic response is necessary. Disadvantages include stress as well as the potential irritation or pathology that can occur at the injection site.

Article 

Intramuscular Injections in the Rabbit

Epaxial musculature is a relatively large in the rabbit, and this muscle mass is a popular site for intramuscular injection in the conscious rabbit. To perform an epaxial injection, select a small-gauge needle (25-27 gauge). An assistant then restrains the rabbit in sternal recumbency with one hand against the rump and another…

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Administration of Medication in Reptiles

Reptile owners are routinely instructed on oral or intramuscular drug administration techniques for outpatient care. In many instances and in many species, parenteral injections are preferred over the oral route. Injectable medications can be delivered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intracoelomically, intravenously, or…

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Intramuscular Injections in Birds

Intramuscular injections in birds are given into the pectoral muscle mass, which consists of superficial and deep pectoral muscles with a prominent fascial plane in between.