Article  Video 

Intramuscular Injections in Small Mammals

In exotic companion mammals, intramuscular injections are primarily given in the large muscles of the rear legs or the epaxial muscles. This review article features a brief video illustrating epaxial muscle injection as well as a discussion of potential complications and a step-by-step description of injections into both thigh and epaxial musculature.

Article  Video 

Intramuscular Injections in Birds

Intramuscular injections in birds are given into the pectoral muscle mass, which consists of superficial and deep pectoral muscles with a prominent fascial plane in between.