Article  Video  Webinar 

Amphibian Sedation and Anesthesia

This RACE-approved webinar recording was presented by Douglas Whiteside,DVM, DVSc, DACZM, DECZM (ZHM). Similar to other vertebrate species, sedation or anesthesia may be required in amphibians for various diagnostic, clinical, and surgical interventions. An understanding of clinically relevant anatomy and physiology, a pre-anesthetic protocol, the selection of appropriate anesthetic drugs to safely conduct a desired procedure, appropriate anesthetic monitoring, and post-anesthetic planning all are key to successfully managing the amphibian patient through an anesthetic event…

Article  Video 

Anesthetic Depth in Exotic Animals: Monitoring the Degree of Central Nervous System Depression

A dedicated anesthetist should be assigned to monitor every patient during the perianesthetic period. The anesthetist is fundamental to patient safety because she assures the patient is not aware, not moving, and not in pain, all while maintaining stable anesthetic depth. A deep plane of anesthesia can lead to hypoventilation and hypoxemia, reduced cardiac output, hypotension, inadequate tissue perfusion, central nervous system (CNS) depression, and prolonged recovery. This review article first explores the stages of anesthesia and then discusses assessment of anesthetic depth in exotic companion mammals, birds, and reptiles.

Article  Teaching Module 

Anesthetic Monitoring Teaching Module

Upon completion of this RACE-approved learning aid, the participant will have a basic clinical understanding of anesthetic monitoring of exotic animal patients: birds, exotic companion mammals, and reptiles.