World Lion Day Facts

World Lion Day is August 10 and LafeberVet celebrated on Twitter in 2014. Explore our collection of “Felidae-friendly” facts expanded for this post . . .

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Adams H, van Vuuren M, Bosman AM, et al. The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 80(3):151-156, 2009.

Adams H, van Vuuren M, Kania S, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of a nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of lentivirus infection in lions (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med 41(4):608-615, 2010.

Armstrong D. Tiger Species Survival Plan Vaccination Recommendations. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians website. June 2002. Available at Accessed on August 12, 2014.

AZA Lion Species Survival Plan. Lion Care Manual, Nutrition chapter. May 23, 2014. Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Available at Accessed on August 8, 2014.

Cat Specialist Group 2001, 2003. “Panthera leo” (On-line). 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at Accessed August 8, 2014.

Disney’s Animal Programs. Species Specific Enrichment Ideas: Lion. Animal Enrichment website. Available at Accessed on August 8, 2014.

Driciru M, Siefert L, Prager KC, et al. A serosurvey of viral infections in lions (Panthera leo), from Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. J Wildl Dis 42(3):667-671, 2006.

Duarte MD, Barros SC, Henriques M, et al. Fatal infection with feline panleukopenia virus in two captive wild carnivores (Panthera tigris and Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med 40(2):354-359, 2009.

Gage L. Basic medicine and husbandry of non-domestic cats. Proc Wild West Veterinary Conf 2010.

Grinnel, J., C. Packer, A. Pusey. 1995. Cooperation in male lions: kinship, reciprocity, or mutualism?. Animal Behavior, 49/1: 95-105. Accessed February 10, 2004 at

Harrington E. Panthera leo. 2004. Animal Diversity Web. Available at Accessed August 08, 2014.

Harrison TM, Sikarskie J, Kruger J. Systemic calicivirus epidemic in captive exotic felids. Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Vet 2006:242.

Kolmstetter C, Munson L, Ramsay EC. Degenerative spinal disease in large felids. J Zoo Wildl Med 31(1):15-19, 2000.

Kosmala M, Miller P, Armstrong D, et al. Disease risk assessment of Mycobacterium bovis in African lions. Proc Amer Assoc Zoo Veterinarians 2011: 55.

Krause K, Weldy S. Non-domestic felids in your practice. Proc Wild West Veterinary Conference 2011.

Maas M, Keet DF, Rutten VP, et al. Assessing the impact of feline immunodeficiency virus and bovine tuberculosis co-infection in African lions. Proc Biol Sci 279(1745):4206-4214, 2012.

Packer, C., A. Pusey. 2001. Egalitarianism in Female African Lions. Science, 293/5530: 690-693. Accessed February 09, 2004 at

Packer, C., D. Scheel, A. Pusey. 1990. Why Lions Form Groups: Food is Not Enough. American Naturalist, 136/1: 1-19.

Ramanathan A, Malik PK, Prasad G. Seroepizootiological survey for selected viral infections in captive Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) from western India. J Zoo Wildl Med 38(3):400-408, 2007.

Risi E, Agoulon A Allaire F, et al. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med 43(2):248-255, 2012.

Schoemaker AH, Maruska EJ, Rockwell R. Zoo guidelines for keeping large felids in captivity. Dec 31, 2013. Nutrition Advisory Group (NAG) Online website. Available at Accessed on August 8, 2014.

Trinkel M, Cooper D, Packer C, Slotow R. Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: an experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation. J Wildl Dis 47(3):494-500, 2011.


Further reading

Martella V, Campolo M, Lorusso E, et al. Norovirus in captive lion cub (Panthera leo). Emerg Infect Dis 13(7):1071-1073, 2007.