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Best Practices: Cytodiagnosis in Exotic Pet Practice

This R.A.C.E.-approved continuing education webinar was presented by Terry Campbell, MS, DVM, PhD. View a recording of this web-based seminar to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. Cytology is a simple, rapid diagnostic procedure requiring little in terms of equipment and cost to the veterinarian. Most clinical veterinarians are familiar with sample collection techniques for domestic mammals; which also apply to the small exotic mammals. Common cytological specimens used in avian and reptilian medicine include: aspirates, imprints of biopsy material, tracheal washes, crop (ingluvies) aspirates or washes in birds, gastric washes in reptiles, sinus aspirates, lung washes in reptiles, aspiration of coelomic fluid, and fecal smears.

Terry Campbell, MS, DVM, PhD

Dr. Terry Campbell is an Associate Professor of zoological medicine at Colorado State University College of Veterinary. Dr. Campbell has over 30 years of experience in exotic animal medicine. His research interests focus on exotic animal cytology, hematology, and plasma biochemistry and he is the co-author of Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology, 4th edition, the definitive hematologic and cytologic reference for all veterinarians and researchers working with avian and exotic animals. Dr. Campbell is also the co-author of Clinical Cases in…


Basic Cytology of the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract

Historically, routine Gram’s stains were performed in apparently healthy birds. As our understanding of avian medicine has grown, avian veterinarians have questioned the reliability and validity of Gram’s stain cytology as a screening test. Cytology is indicated when specific problems are reported during a detailed medical history or when…