LafeberVet Lit Search: SARS-CoV-2

Introduction

Over 14,000 articles have been posted to PubMed on the 2019 novel coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2. Thousands more articles are available as pre-prints. Obviously this explosion of information can be intimidating for the busy veterinarian, but you can use the resources listed in Table 1 to stay current on the latest information. Then turn to our COVID Content Catch-Up review article and this supplemental LafeberVet Literature Search, as well as LafeberVet’s Coronavirus in Animals and Determinants of Viral Infection,to dive a bit deeper.

Many of the references provided below are listed in more than one category. Three strongly recommended citations are bolded. Pre-prints, which should be evaluated with caution, are highlighted in red.

 

Table 1. Online COVID-19 Resources

 

 

Exotic animals 

Decaro N, Lorusso A. Novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2):  A lesson from animal coronaviruses. Vet Microbiol Vol 244, May 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108693.

Gollakner R, Capua I. Is COVID-19 the first pandemic that evolves into a panzootic? Vet Ital 2020 Apr 24;56(1):7-8. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.2246.12523.1.

Gonultas S, Karabagli M, Bastug Y, et al. COVID-19 and animals: What do we know? Turk J Urol. 2020 May 15. doi: 10.5152/tud.2020.140520. Online ahead of print.

Huang Q, Zhan X, Zeng XT. COVID-19 pandemic: stop panic abandonment of household pets. J Travel Med. 2020 May 18;27(3):taaa046.  doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa046.

Leroy EM, Ar Gouilh M, Brugere-Picoux J. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to pets and other wild and domestic animals strongly mandates a one-health strategy to control the COVID-19 pandemic. One Health. 2020 Apr 13;100133. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100133.

Loeb J. Covid-19 wake-up call for exotic pet trade. Vet Rec 2020 Apr 18;186(14):432. doi: 10.1136/vr.m1517.

Luan J, Jin X, Lu Y, Zhang L. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein favors ACE2 from Bovidae and Cricetidae. J Med Virol. 2020 Apr 1;10.1002/jmv.25817. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25817. Online ahead of print.

McNamara T, Richt JA, Glickman L. A critical needs assessment for research in companion animals and livestock following the pandemic of COVID-19 in humans. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 May 5. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2020.2650. Online ahead of print.

Shi J, Wen Z, Zhong G, et al. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and different domestic animals to SARS-coronavirus-2. Science. 2020 Apr 8 : eabb7015. doi: org/10.1101/2020.03.30.015347.

Please note: There has been some debate as to the soundness of this study’s protocols and therefore the validity of the conclusions reached by Shi et al have also been questioned.

Tiwari R, Dhama K, Sharun K, et al. COVID-19: animals, veterinary and zoonotic links. Vet Q. 2020 May 12:1-22. doi: 10.1080/01652176.2020.1766725. Online ahead of print.

Zhai X, Sun J, Yan Z, et al. Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2 receptors from human, pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts. J Virol. 2020 May 13;JVI.00831-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00831-20. Online ahead of print.

 

Bats

Li C, Yang Y, Ren L. Genetic evolution analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus and coronavirus from other species. Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Mar 10;82:104285. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104285. Online ahead of print.

Luan J, Lu Y, Jin X, Zhang L. Spike protein recognition of mammalian ACE2 predicts the host range and an optimized ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 May 21;526(1):165-169. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.03.047. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Maganga GD, Pinto A, Mobo IM, et al. Genetic diversity and ecology of coronaviruses hosted by cave-dwelling bats in Gabon. Sci Rep. 2020 Apr 30;10(1):7314. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-64159-1.

 

Birds

de Wit JJS, Cook JKA. Avian coronaviruses. Avian Pathol. 2020 May 6:1-7. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2020.1761010. Online ahead of print.

Volpato G, Fontefrancescoz MF, Gruppuso P, et al . Baby pangolins on my plate: possible lessons to learn from the COVID-19 pandemic. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2020 Apr 21;16(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s13002-020-00366-4.

Xiu L, Binder RA, Alarja NA, et al. A RT-PCR assay for the detection of coronaviruses from four genera. J Clin Virol. 2020 Apr 30;128:104391.  doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104391. Online ahead of print.

Zhuang Q, Liu S, Zhang X, et al. Surveillance and taxonomic analysis of the coronavirus dominant in pigeons in China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Mar 12;10.1111/tbed.13541. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13541. Online ahead of print.

 

Camelids

Wrapp D, De Vlieger D, Corbett KS, et al. Structural basis for potent neutralization of betacoronaviruses by single-domain camelid antibodies. Cell. 2020 Apr 29;S0092-8674(20)30494-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.031. Online ahead of print.

 

Civets

Li C, Yang Y, Ren L. Genetic evolution analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus and coronavirus from other species. Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Mar 10;82:104285. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104285. Online ahead of print.

 

Ferrets

Kim YI, Kim SG, Kim SM, et al. Infection and rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets. Cell Host Microbe 2020 Apr 6. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.03.023 [Epub ahead of print] 

Richard, M., Kok, A., de Meulder, D. et al. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via contact and via the air between ferrets. Nat Commun 11, 3496 (2020). doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17367-2.

Shi J, Wen Z, Zhong G et al. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2. Science. 2020 Apr 8 : eabb7015. Published online 2020 Apr 8. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7015.

Please note: There has been some debate as to the soundness of this study’s protocols and therefore the validity of the conclusions reached by Shi et al have also been questioned.

 

Non-human primates

Pre-Print:  Deng W, Bao L Gao H, et al. Ocular conjunctival inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 can cause mild COVID-19 in Rhesus macaques. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.13.990036

Gibbons A. Ape researchers mobilize to save primates from coronavirus. Science. 2020 May 8;368(6491):566. doi: 10.1126/science.368.6491.566-a.

Le Bras A. Efficacy of remdesivir in a rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection. Lab Anim (NY). 2020 May;49(5):150. doi: 10.1038/s41684-020-0537-x.

Luan J, Lu Y, Jin X, Zhang L. Spike protein recognition of mammalian ACE2 predicts the host range and an optimized ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 May 21;526(1):165-169. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.03.047. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Munster VJ, Feldman F, Williamson BN, et al. Respiratory disease in rhesus macaques inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2020 May 12. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2324-7. Online ahead of print.

Rockx B, Kuiken T, Herfst S, et al. Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model. Science. 2020 Apr 17;eabb7314. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7314. Online ahead of print.

Pre-Print:  Williamson BN, Feldmann F, Schwarz B.  Clinical benefit of remdesivir in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. bioRXiv. doi:  10.1101/2020.04.15.043166.

Yu P, Qi F, Xu Y, et al.  Age-related rhesus macaque models of COVID-19. Animal Model Exp Med. 2020 Mar 30;3(1):93-97. doi: 10.1002/ame2.12108.

 

Pangolins

Liu P, Jiang JZ, Wan XF, et al. Are pangolins the intermediate host of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)?  PLoS Pathog. 2020 May 14;16(5):e1008421. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421. eCollection 2020 May.

Volpato G, Fontefrancescoz MF, Gruppuso P, et al . Baby pangolins on my plate: possible lessons to learn from the COVID-19 pandemic. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2020 Apr 21;16(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s13002-020-00366-4.

 

 

Cats and dogs

Decaro N, Lorusso A. Novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2):  A lesson from animal coronaviruses. Vet Microbiol Vol 244, May 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108693.

Gao T, Pan Xi, Pan C. The fate of house cats during the COVID-19 pandemic. Microbes Infect. 2020 Apr 22. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2020.04.006 [Epub ahead of print]

Gollakner R, Capua I. Is COVID-19 the first pandemic that evolves into a panzootic? Vet Ital 2020 Apr 24;56(1):7-8. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.2246.12523.1.

Gonultas S, Karabagli M, Bastug Y, et al. COVID-19 and animals: What do we know? Turk J Urol. 2020 May 15. doi: 10.5152/tud.2020.140520. Online ahead of print.

Halfmann PJ, Hatta M, Chiba S, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic cats. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 13. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2013400. Online ahead of print.

He HJ, Zhang W, Liang J, et al. Etiology and genetic evolution of canine coronavirus circulating in five provinces of China, during 2018-2019. Microb Pathog. 2020 Apr 18;145:104209. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104209. Online ahead of print.

Huang Q, Zhan X, Zeng XT. COVID-19 pandemic: stop panic abandonment of household pets. J Travel Med. 2020 May 18;27(3):taaa046.  doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa046.

Leroy EM, Ar Gouilh M, Brugere-Picoux J. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to pets and other wild and domestic animals strongly mandates a one-health strategy to control the COVID-19 pandemic. One Health. 2020 Apr 13;100133. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100133.

Li X. Can cats become infected with Covid-19? Vet Rec. 2020 Apr 18;186(14):457-458. doi: 10.1136/vr.m1455.

Li X. Cats under the shadow of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Apr 28. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13599. Online ahead of print.

Luan J, Lu Y, Jin X, Zhang L. Spike protein recognition of mammalian ACE2 predicts the host range and an optimized ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 May 21;526(1):165-169. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.03.047. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Mallapaty S. Coronavirus can infect cats – dogs, not so much. Nature 2020. PMID: 32238897. No abstract available.

McNamara T, Richt JA, Glickman L. A critical needs assessment for research in companion animals and livestock following the pandemic of COVID-19 in humans. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 May 5. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2020.2650. Online ahead of print.

Parry NMA. COVID-19 and pets:  When pandemic meets panic. Forensic Science International: Reports Volume 2, Dec 2020. doi10.1016/j.fsir.2020.100090.

Shi J, Wen Z, Zhong G, et al. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2. Science. 2020 Apr 8 : eabb7015. Published online 2020 Apr 8. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7015.

Sit THC, Brackman CJ, Ip SM, et al. Infection of dogs with SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2020 May 14. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2334-5. Online ahead of print.

Pre-Print:  Temmam S, Barbarino A, Maso D, et al. Absence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats and dogs in close contact with a cluster of COVID-19 patients in a veterinary campus. bioRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.07.029090.

Wang H, Wang F, Wang H, Zhao Q. Potential infectious risk from the pets carrying SARS-CoV-2. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 5;101737. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101737.

Zhai X, Sun J, Yan Z, et al. Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2 receptors from human, pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts. J Virol. 2020 May 13;JVI.00831-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00831-20. Online ahead of print.

 

 

Mechanism

Underlying cause(s) of COVID-19 infections

 

Bao L, Deng W, Huang B, et al. The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 transgenic mice. Nature. 2020 May 7. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2312-y. Online ahead of print.

Barton MC, Bennett KV, Cook JR, et al. Hypothesized behavioral host manipulation by SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 infection. Med Hypotheses. 2020 Apr 22;141:109750. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109750. Online ahead of print.

Decaro N, Lorusso A. Novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2):  A lesson from animal coronaviruses. Vet Microbiol Vol 244, May 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108693.

Deng J, Jin Y, Liu Y, et al. Serological survey of SARS-CoV-2 for experimental, domestic, companion and wild animals excludes intermediate hosts of 35 different species of animals. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Apr 17.  doi: 10.1111/tbed.13577. Online ahead of print.

Franklin AB, Bevins SN. Spillover of SARS-CoV-2 into novel wild hosts in North America: A conceptual model for perpetuation of the pathogen. Sci Total Environ. 2020 May 12;733:139358. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139358. Online ahead of print.

Gao Y, Yan L, Huang Y, et al. Structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from COVID-19 virus. Science 368(6492):779-782, 2020. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7498.

He HJ, Zhang W, Liang J, et al. Etiology and genetic evolution of canine coronavirus circulating in five provinces of China, during 2018-2019. Microb Pathog. 2020 Apr 18;145:104209. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104209. Online ahead of print.

Li C, Yang Y, Ren L. Genetic evolution analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus and coronavirus from other species. Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Mar 10;82:104285. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104285. Online ahead of print.

Liu P, Jiang JZ, Wan XF, et al. Are pangolins the intermediate host of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)? PLoS Pathog. 2020 May 14;16(5):e1008421. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421. eCollection 2020 May.

Luan J, Jin X, Lu Y, Zhang L. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein favors ACE2 from Bovidae and Cricetidae. J Med Virol. 2020 Apr 1;10.1002/jmv.25817. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25817. Online ahead of print.

Luan J, Lu Y, Jin X, Zhang L. Spike protein recognition of mammalian ACE2 predicts the host range and an optimized ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 May 21;526(1):165-169. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.03.047. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Maganga GD, Pinto A, Mobo IM, et al. Genetic diversity and ecology of coronaviruses hosted by cave-dwelling bats in Gabon. Sci Rep. 2020 Apr 30;10(1):7314. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-64159-1.

McNamara T, Richt JA, Glickman L. A critical needs assessment for research in companion animals and livestock following the pandemic of COVID-19 in humans. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 May 5. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2020.2650. Online ahead of print.

Munster VJ, Feldman F, Williamson BN, et al. Respiratory disease in rhesus macaques inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Nature. 2020 May 12. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2324-7. Online ahead of print.

Rockx B, Kuiken T, Herfst S, et al. Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model. Science. 2020 Apr 17;eabb7314. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7314. Online ahead of print.

Su H, Yang M, Wan C, et al. Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China. Kidney Int. 2020 Apr 9;S0085-2538(20)30369-0. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.003. Online ahead of print.

Wang X, Xu W, Hu G, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated membrane fusion. Cell Mol Immunol. 2020 Apr 7;1-3. doi: 10.1038/s41423-020-0424-9. Online ahead of print.

Wölfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, et al. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature. 2020 Apr 1. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2196-x. Online ahead of print.

Yu P, Qi F, Xu Y, et al.  Age-related rhesus macaque models of COVID-19. Animal Model Exp Med. 2020 Mar 30;3(1):93-97. doi: 10.1002/ame2.12108.

Zhai X, Sun J, Yan Z, et al. Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2 receptors from human, pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts. J Virol. 2020 May 13;JVI.00831-20.  doi: 10.1128/JVI.00831-20. Online ahead of print.

Zhuang Q, Liu S, Zhang X, et al. Surveillance and taxonomic analysis of the coronavirus dominant in pigeons in China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Mar 12;10.1111/tbed.13541. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13541. Online ahead of print.

 

 

 

Transmission

Decaro N, Lorusso A. Novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2):  A lesson from animal coronaviruses. Vet Microbiol Vol 244, May 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108693.

Pre-Print:  Deng W, Bao L Gao H, et al. Ocular conjunctival inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 can cause mild COVID-19 in Rhesus macaques. doi: 10.1101/2020.03.13.990036.

Halfmann PJ, Hatta M, Chiba S, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic cats. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 13. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2013400. Online ahead of print.

He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020 May;26(5):672-675.  doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0869-5. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Huang Q, Zhan X, Zeng XT. COVID-19 pandemic: stop panic abandonment of household pets. J Travel Med. 2020 May 18;27(3):taaa046.  doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa046.

Kim YI, Kim SG, Kim SM, et al. Infection and rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ferrets. Cell Host Microbe 2020 Apr 6.  doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.03.023 [Epub ahead of print]

Kissler SM, Tedijanto C, Goldstein E, et al. Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period. Science. 2020 Apr 14;eabb5793. doi: 10.1126/science.abb5793. Online ahead of print.

Leroy EM, Ar Gouilh M, Brugere-Picoux J. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to pets and other wild and domestic animals strongly mandates a one-health strategy to control the COVID-19 pandemic. One Health. 2020 Apr 13;100133. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100133.

Li X. Can cats become infected with Covid-19? Vet Rec. 2020 Apr 18;186(14):457-458. doi: 10.1136/vr.m1455.

Li X. Cats under the shadow of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Apr 28. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13599. Online ahead of print.

Liu P, Jiang JZ, Wan XF, et al. Are pangolins the intermediate host of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)?  PLoS Pathog. 2020 May 14;16(5):e1008421. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421. eCollection 2020 May.

Luan J, Lu Y, Jin X, Zhang L. Spike protein recognition of mammalian ACE2 predicts the host range and an optimized ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 May 21;526(1):165-169. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.03.047. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

McNamara T, Richt JA, Glickman L. A critical needs assessment for research in companion animals and livestock following the pandemic of COVID-19 in humans. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 May 5. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2020.2650. Online ahead of print.

Richard, M., Kok, A., de Meulder, D. et al. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via contact and via the air between ferrets. Nat Commun 11, 3496 (2020). doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17367-2.

Scorzolini L, Corpolongo A, Castilletti C. Comment of the potential risks of sexual and vertical transmission of Covid-19 infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 16;ciaa445. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa445. Online ahead of print. 

Shi J, Wen Z, Zhong G et al. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2. Science. 2020 Apr 8 : eabb7015. Published online 2020 Apr 8. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7015.

Please note: There has been some debate as to the soundness of this study’s protocols and therefore the validity of the conclusions reached by Shi et al have also been questioned.

Sit THC, Brackman CJ, Ip SM, et al. Infection of dogs with SARS-CoV-2.  Nature. 2020 May 14. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2334-5. Online ahead of print.

Sun J, Zhu A, Li H, et al. Isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from urine of a COVID-19 patient. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1):991-993.  doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1760144.

Tiwari R, Dhama K, Sharun K, et al. COVID-19: animals, veterinary and zoonotic links. Vet Q. 2020 May 12:1-22. doi: 10.1080/01652176.2020.1766725. Online ahead of print.

Wang H, Wang F, Wang H, Zhao Q. Potential infectious risk from the pets carrying SARS-CoV-2. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 5;101737. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101737.

Yu P, Qi F, Xu Y, et al.  Age-related rhesus macaque models of COVID-19. Animal Model Exp Med. 2020 Mar 30;3(1):93-97. doi: 10.1002/ame2.12108.

Zhai X, Sun J, Yan Z, et al. Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2 receptors from human, pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts. J Virol. 2020 May 13;JVI.00831-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00831-20. Online ahead of print.

 

 

Diagnosis

Pre-Print:  Adams ER, Ainsworth M, Anand R, et al. Antibody testing for COVID-19: A report from the National COVID Scientific Advisory Panel. medRxiv  doi: 10.1101/2020.04.15.20066407.

Chang L, Zhao L, Gong H, Wang Lunan, Wang L. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA detected in blood donations. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 3;26(7). doi: 10.3201/eid2607.200839. Online ahead of print.

Chen C, Guiju G, Yanli Xu, et al. SARS-CoV-2–positive sputum and feces after conversion of pharyngeal samples in patients with COVID-19.  Annals of Internal Medicine   March 30, 2020. doi: 10.7326/M20-0991.

Chen X, Zhao B, Qu Y, et al. Detectable serum SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely correlated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 17;ciaa449. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa449. Online ahead of print.

Helms J, Kremer S, Merdji H, et al. Neurologic features in severe SARS CoV-2 infection. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 15:NEJMc2008597. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2008597. Online ahead of print.

Huang Y, Chen S, Yang Z, et al. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in clinical samples of critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Apr 15. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202003-0572LE. Online ahead of print.

Pre-Print:  Lassaunière R, Frische A, Haboe ZB, et al. Evaluation of nine commercial SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays. medRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.09.20056325.

Lin C, Xiang J, Yan M, et al. Comparison of throat swabs and sputum specimens for viral nucleic acid detection in 52 cases of novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2)-infected pneumonia (COVID-19). Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020 Apr 16;/j/cclm.ahead-of-print/cclm-2020-0187/cclm-2020-0187.xml. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-0187. Online ahead of print.

Mao L, Huijuan J, Wang M, et al. Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Apr 10:e201127. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127. Online ahead of print.

McNamara T, Richt JA, Glickman L. A critical needs assessment for research in companion animals and livestock following the pandemic of COVID-19 in humans. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 May 5. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2020.2650. Online ahead of print. 

Pal M, Berhanu G, Desalegn C, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): an update. Cureus. 2020 Mar 26;12(3):e7423. doi: 10.7759/cureus.7423.

Pasomsub E, Watcharananan SP, Boonyawat K, et al. Saliva sample as a non-invasive specimen for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): a cross-sectional study.  Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 May 15;S1198-743X(20)30278-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.05.001. Online ahead of print.

Peng L, Liu J, Xu W, et al. SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in urine, blood, anal swabs, and oropharyngeal swabs specimens. J Med Virol. 2020 Apr 24.  doi: 10.1002/jmv.25936. Online ahead of print.

Su H, Yang M, Wan C, et al. Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China. Kidney Int. 2020 Apr 9;S0085-2538(20)30369-0. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.003. Online ahead of print.

Sun J, Xiao J, Sun R, et al. Prolonged persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in body fluids. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 May 8;26(8). doi: 10.3201/eid2608.201097. Online ahead of print.

To KKW, Tsang OTY, Leung WS, et al. Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study.  Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 May;20(5):565-574. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1.

Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, et al.  Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA. 2020;323(18):1843-1844. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3786.

Wölfel R, Corman VM, Guggemos W, et al. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature. 2020 Apr 1. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2196-x. Online ahead of print.

Pre-Print:  Wylie AL, Fournier J, Casanovas-Massana A, et al. Saliva is more sensitive for SARS-CoV-2 detection in COVID-19 patients than nasopharyngeal swabs. medRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.16.20067835.

Xiao AT, Tong YX, Zhang S. Profile of RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary study from 56 COVID-19 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 19;ciaa460. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa460. Online ahead of print.

Xiu L, Binder RA, Alarja NA, et al. A RT-PCR assay for the detection of coronaviruses from four genera. J Clin Virol. 2020 Apr 30;128:104391.  doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104391. Online ahead of print.

Zhou B, She J, Wang Y, Ma X. The duration of viral shedding of discharged patients with severe COVID-19. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 17:ciaa451. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa451. Online ahead of print.

Zhuang Q, Liu S, Zhang X, et al. Surveillance and taxonomic analysis of the coronavirus dominant in pigeons in China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Mar 12;10.1111/tbed.13541. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13541. Online ahead of print.

 

 

Treatment

Pre-Print:  Chen C, Xhang Y, Huang J, et al. Favipiravir versus arbidol for COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial. medRxiv doi:  10.1101/2020.03.17.20037432.

Chen X, Zhao B, Qu Y, et al. Detectable serum SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely correlated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 17;ciaa449. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa449. Online ahead of print.

Gao Y, Yan L, Huang Y, et al. Structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from COVID-19 virus.Science 368(6492):779-782, 2020. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7498.

Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, et al. Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 10;NEJMoa2007016.  doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007016. Online ahead of print.

Klok FA, Kruip MJHA, van der Meer NJM, et al. Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. Thromb Res. 2020 Apr 10:S0049-3848(20)30120-1. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2020.04.013. Online ahead of print.

Le Bras A. Efficacy of remdesivir in a rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection. Lab Anim (NY). 2020 May;49(5):150. doi: 10.1038/s41684-020-0537-x.

Pre-Print:  Magagnoli J, Narendran S, Pereira F, et al. Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with Covid-19. medRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.16.20065920.

Pre-Print:  Mahevas M, Tran VTT, Roumier M, et al.  No evidence of clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection with oxygen requirement: results of a study using routinely collected data to emulate a target trial. medRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.10.20060699.

McNamara T, Richt JA, Glickman L. A critical needs assessment for research in companion animals and livestock following the pandemic of COVID-19 in humans. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 May 5. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2020.2650. Online ahead of print.

Mehra MR, Desai SS, Ruschitzka F, Patel AN. Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis. The Lancet. May 22, 2020. doi: doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6.

Moore JB, June CH. Cytokine release syndrome in severe COVID-19. Science. 2020. PMID: 32303591. doi: 10.1126/science.abb8925.

Pal M, Berhanu G, Desalegn C, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): an update. Cureus. 2020 Mar 26;12(3):e7423. doi: 10.7759/cureus.7423.

Rockx B, Kuiken T, Herfst S, et al. Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model. Science. 2020 Apr 17;eabb7314. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7314. Online ahead of print.

Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Zhou S, et al. An orally bioavailable broad-spectrum antiviral inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cell cultures and multiple coronaviruses in mice. Sci Transl Med. 2020 Apr 29;12(541):eabb5883. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abb5883. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Pre-Print:  Silva Borba MG, de Almedia F, Sampaio VS, et al. Chloroquine diphosphate in two different dosages as adjunctive therapy of hospitalized patients with severe respiratory syndrome in the context of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection: Preliminary safety results of a randomized, double-blinded, phase IIb clinical trial (CloroCovid-19 Study). medRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.07.20056424.

Tang W, Cao Z, Han M, et al. Hydroxychloroquine in patients mainly with mild to moderate COVID-19: an open-label, randomized, controlled trial. BMJ. 2020 May 14;369:m1849. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1849.

Wang Y, Zhang D, Du G, et al. Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet 2020; 395: 1569–78 Published Online April 29, 2020. doi:  10.1016/ S0140-6736(20)31022-9.

Pre-Print:  Williamson BN, Feldmann F, Schwarz B.  Clinical benefit of remdesivir in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2. bioRXiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.04.15.043166.

 

 

Prevention & management

Gao T, Pan Xi, Pan C. The fate of house cats during the COVID-19 pandemic. Microbes Infect. 2020 Apr 22. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2020.04.006 [Epub ahead of print]

Gollakner R, Capua I. Is COVID-19 the first pandemic that evolves into a panzootic? Vet Ital 2020 Apr 24;56(1):7-8. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.2246.12523.1.

Gonultas S, Karabagli M, Bastug Y, et al. COVID-19 and animals: What do we know? Turk J Urol. 2020 May 15. doi: 10.5152/tud.2020.140520. Online ahead of print.

He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020 May;26(5):672-675. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0869-5. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Huang Q, Zhan X, Zeng XT. COVID-19 pandemic: stop panic abandonment of household pets. J Travel Med. 2020 May 18;27(3):taaa046. doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa046.

Leroy EM, Ar Gouilh M, Brugere-Picoux J. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to pets and other wild and domestic animals strongly mandates a one-health strategy to control the COVID-19 pandemic. One Health. 2020 Apr 13;100133. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100133.

Lorusso A, Calistri P, Mercante MT, et al. A “One-Health” approach for diagnosis and molecular characterization of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy. One Health.. 2020 Apr 19;100135. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100135. Online ahead of print.

Pal M, Berhanu G, Desalegn C, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): an update. Cureus. 2020 Mar 26;12(3):e7423. doi: 10.7759/cureus.7423.

Shi J, Wen Z, Zhong G et al. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2. Science. 2020 Apr 8 : eabb7015. Published online 2020 Apr 8. doi: 10.1126/science.abb7015.

Please note: There has been some debate as to the soundness of this study’s protocols and therefore the validity of the conclusions reached by Shi et al have also been questioned.

Sun J, Zhu A, Li H, et al. Isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from urine of a COVID-19 patient. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1):991-993. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1760144.

Tiwari R, Dhama K, Sharun K, et al. COVID-19: animals, veterinary and zoonotic links. Vet Q. 2020 May 12:1-22. doi: 10.1080/01652176.2020.1766725. Online ahead of print.

Volpato G, Fontefrancescoz MF, Gruppuso P, et al . Baby pangolins on my plate: possible lessons to learn from the COVID-19 pandemic. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2020 Apr 21;16(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s13002-020-00366-4.

 

 

Case reports

Alzamora MC, Paredes T, Caceres D, et al. Severe COVID-19 during pregnancy and possible vertical transmission.  Am J Perinatol. 2020 Apr 18. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1710050. Online ahead of print.

Colavita F, Lapa D, Carletti F. SARS-CoV-2 isolation from ocular secretions of a patient with COVID-19 in Italy with prolonged viral RNA detection. Ann Intern Med 2020 Apr 17;M20-1176. doi: 10.7326/M20-1176. Online ahead of print.

Magro C, Mulvey J, Berlin D, et al. Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: a report of five cases. Transl Res. 2020 Apr 15;S1931-5244(20)30070-0. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2020.04.007. Online ahead of print.

Sala S, Peretto G, Gramegna M, et al. Acute myocarditis presenting as a reverse Tako-Tsubo syndrome in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection. Eur Heart J . 2020 May 14;41(19):1861-1862. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa286.

Su H, Yang M, Wan C, et al. Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China. Kidney Int. 2020 Apr 9;S0085-2538(20)30369-0. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2020.04.003. Online ahead of print.

Tavazzi G, Pellegrini C, Maurelli M, et al. Myocardial localization of coronavirus in COVID‐19 cardiogenic shock. Eur J Heart Fail. 2020 Apr 10. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.1828. Online ahead of print.

Varga Z, Flammer AJ, Steiger P, et al. Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19. Lancet. 2020 May 2;395(10234):1417-1418. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

 

 

Epidemic forecasting

Kissler SM, Tedijanto C, Goldstein E, et al. Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period. Science. 2020 Apr 14;eabb5793. doi: 10.1126/science.abb5793. Online ahead of print.

 

References