- High detail film together with appropriate single screen is essential for proper imaging.
- A grid is generally contraindicated in most avian patients (
- Develop technique charts utilizing the lowest kilovoltage, the highest milliamperes per second, and the shortest exposure time possible.
- For the ventrodorsal (VD) view, place the bird in dorsal recumbency with the keel perpendicular to the cassette. Extend the wings bilaterally 90 degrees from the body and extend the legs caudally.
- For the lateral view, place the bird in right lateral recumbency. Extend the wings dorsally and retract the legs caudally, with the dependent limb slightly cranial to the non-dependent limb.
- The normal avian lung has a honeycomb appearance on the lateral view. Parts of the air sac space are visible as dark, air-filled areas on VD, and to a lesser extent, lateral views.
- The cardiohepatic silhouette in the parrot should resemble an hourglass on the VD view. If a vertical line is drawn from the scapula to the acetabula on the VD view, the silhouette should be medial to this line.
- The proventriculus is seen most clearly on the lateral view. This spindle-shaped structure sits dorsal to the liver on the lateral view. The ventriculus often contains grit and is located caudoventral to the proventriculus.
- The kidney is seen most readily on the lateral view. The cranial lobe of the kidney sits just below the lumbar spine, cranial to the acetabulum. The gonads lie cranioventral to the kidney, and gonadal swelling may be confused with renomegaly.
- On occasion, the spleen may be seen on the lateral view as a spherical object, cranial to the femur, just above the level of the proventriculus. When the spleen is visible, this is typically an indication of splenomegaly.
- Contrast radiography may help to identify the cause of a space-occupying lesion within the coelom.
Radiography is a non-invasive, informative tool that is designed to be used alongside other diagnostic information. This review article first provides tips that will maximize success and describes common radiographic positions. The bulk of this review article describes normal radiographic findings of various body systems but common abnormalities such as organomegaly are also described . . .
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