Article 

Blood Pressure Monitoring in Exotic Animal Species

Arterial blood pressure is a function of heart rate, blood volume, stroke volume, and arterial compliance. Indirect arterial blood pressure is most commonly measured by Doppler ultrasound or non-invasive oscillometric monitors. What are the limitations of indirect blood pressure measurements in exotic animal patients? How is this technique unique in exotic companion mammals when compared to dogs and cats? How is this technique performed in birds and can this procedure be used in reptiles?

Article 

Vascular Cutdown Techniques

Among exotic animals, venous cutdown is most commonly employed in reptiles like lizards and snakes although intraosseous catheters are also placed in lizards. Similarly, when an exotic companion mammal like a ferret or rabbit suffers from severe hypovolemia, dehydration, hypotension, and vascular collapse, intraosseous catheters have largely replaced venous cutdowns but this technique is occasionally employed.

Article 

Measuring Avian Blood Pressure

Arterial blood pressure measurement is an important tool in the management of the critically ill bird. Systolic blood pressure is the pressure exerted against the blood vessel wall during contraction of the heart. Although direct arterial pressure measurement is ideal, it is not commonly used because of the need for specific technical skill, invasive nature of the procedure, and cost of equipment.