Expert Panel on Companion Bird Nutrition

Introduction

Regulators of the pet food industry rely on data from expert panels to determine minimum nutrient requirements for small animals. In 1998, an expert committee met to discuss the nutritional needs of companion birds. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss and develop nutrient profiles for companion birds, focusing on profiles for formulated feed.

The expert panel developed maintenance guidelines for two broad groups of birds: psittacines and passerines, regardless of size or genus. These conservative, generalized guidelines are extrapolated from the National Research Council requirements for poultry and may be found in Table 1. The panel members also agreed that crude protein levels should be relatively low for pet bird food. Levels ranging from 12% to 15% crude protein were recommended for long-term feeding.

These guidelines have an important limitation. The amount of energy available to the body from feed ingredients such as corn and soybean meal after loss from eliminations and heat production (or metabolizable energy) is unknown in pet birds. Therefore the panel used gross energy levels instead of metabolizable energy.

Table 1. Nutrient profile recommendations for companion birds

PsittacinesPasserines
MinimumMaximumMinimumMaximum
Gross energykcal⁄kg3200420035004500
Total protein%1214
Linoleic acid%11

AMINO ACIDS

Arginine%0.650.75
Lysine%0.650.75
Methionine%0.30.35
Threonine%0.40.46

VITAMINS

Vitamin Aiu⁄kg80008000
Vitamin D3icu⁄kg500200010002500
Vitamin Eppm5050
Vitamin Kppm11
Biotinppm0.250.25
Cholineppm15001500
Folic acidppm1.51.5
Niacinppm5050
Pantothenic acidppm2020
Pyridoxineppm66
Pyridoxineppm66
Thiamineppm44
Vitamin B12ppm0.010.01

MINERALS

Calcium%0.31.20.51.2
Phosphorus%0.30.5
Ca:P ratio1:12:11:12:1
Chlorine%0.120.12
Magnesiumppm600600
Sodium%0.120.12

TRACE MINERALS

Copperppm88
Iodineppm0.40.4
Ironppm8080
Manganeseppm6565
Seleniumppm0.10.1
Seleniumppm5050
*    Total vitamin A activity is listed meaning vitamin A plus carotene.
**  Total dietary phosphorus is listed as opposed to the more difficult to analyze, non-phytate phosphorus.

References