Esophagostomy Tube Placement in Birds

Placement of an enteral feeding tube is a recognized method of supportive care, and the esophagostomy tube is an accepted route that is generally well tolerated by avian patients and relatively easy to place. In clinical patients, esophagostomy tube placement has been described in psittacine birds, raptors, and ostriches.

Esophagostomy tube placement is indicated in cases of severe beak trauma or disease, as well as diseases of the oral cavity or proximal esophagus, such as abscesses and neoplasia. Esophagostomy tubes may also be used to . . .

To continue you need to be a member. (Français), (Español)

Pour continuer, vous devez être un membre

Para continuar, debe ser miembro de

Already a LafeberVet Member?

Please Login


Abdelfatah MM, Garg A, Sarr MG. Tube pharyngostomy—a useful alternative for long-term enteric decompression or enteral feeding. J Gastrointest Surg 16(12):2318-2320, 2012.

Aguilar RF, Yoshicedo JN, Parish CN. Ingluviotomy tube placement for lead-induced crop stasis in the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). J Avian Med Surg 26(3):176–181, 2012.

Bennett RA, Harrison GJ. Soft tissue surgery. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR (eds). Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Lake Worth, FL: Wingers Publishing Inc; 1994:1111–1112. Available at Accessed August 20, 2015.

Bowles HL, Odberg E, Harrison GJ, Kottwitz JJ. Surgical resolution of soft tissue disorders. In: Harrison GJ, Lightfoot TL (eds). Clinical Avian Medicine. Vol II. Palm Beach, FL: Spix Publishing; 2006:799, 803.

Devitt CM, Seim HB 3rd. Clinical evaluation of tube esophagostomy in small animals. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33(1):55–60, 1997.

Eirmann L, Michel KE. Enteral nutrition. In: Silverstein DC, Hopper K (eds). Small Animal Critical Care Medicine, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier: 2015: 681-686.

Harris DJ. Therapeutic avian techniques. Proc Atlantic Coast Vet Conf 2001.

Honnas CM, Blue-McLendon A, Zamos DT, et al. Proventriculotomy in ostriches: 18 cases (1990–1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc 202(12):1989– 1992, 1993.

Huynh M, Sabater M, Brandão J, Forbes NA. Use of an esophagostomy tube as a method of nutritional management in raptors: a case series. J Avian Med Surg 28(1):24-30, 2014.

Jones TM, Bodenham AR. Percutaneous cervical pharyngostomy:  a traditional technique revisited. Anaesthesia 60(10):1031-1035, 2005.

Parker VJ, Freeman LM. Comparison of various solutions to dissolve critical care diet clots. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 23(3):344, 2013.

Powers LV. Esophagstomy. In: Mayer J, Donnelly TM (eds). Clinical Veterinary Advisor: Birds and Exotic Pets. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders: Publisher; 2013: 540-541.

Wynne J, Stringfield C. Treatment of lead toxicity and crop stasis in a California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). J Zoo Wildl Med 38(4):588–590, 2007.




To cite this page:

Harris D, Pollock C. Esophagostomy tube placement in birds. August 6, 2016. LafeberVet Web site. Available at