Article 

Electrocardiography in Exotic Animal Species

Electrocardiography can be used to detect and diagnose arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, particularly during long-term anesthesia. How are leads attached to exotic animal patients? And what is the normal appearance of normal electrocardiogram tracings in birds or reptiles?

Article  Video  Webinar 

Quality Exotic Small Mammal Anesthesia

Exotic small mammals can be challenging to safely induce, maintain and recover from general anesthesia. View the recording of this AAVSB R.A.C.E.-approved webinar, which explores clinical anesthesia in exotic companion mammals from patient assessment and anesthetic induction to monitoring and recovery. The use of common premedications, induction agents, maintenance drugs, and post-operative analgesics will be compared and contrasted in exotic companion mammals. Multimodal anesthetic techniques, such as epidural anesthesia and constant rate infusions, will also be discussed. After reviewing the recording, take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.

Article  Presenting Problem  Quiz 

Presenting problem: Cardiac Dysrhythmia in the Ferret

Have you ausculted an arrhythmia in a ferret. Now what? Cardiac dysrhythmias can encompass a wide range of clinical syndromes that vary in significance and signs.

Do you consider ferret arrhythmias a cinch? Take our quiz to confirm you’re ready to auscult in a pinch!

Article 

How to Verify Life (and Death) in Reptiles

Nowhere is the mystery of life and death more apparent than when dealing with reptiles.

Detecting the reptile heart rate: Even in the active, healthy reptile the stethoscope is generally a useless piece of equipment. The presence of scales or the shell makes auscultation of the heart difficult, if not impossible, in many instances. Therefore ancillary testing such as ultrasonography or electrocardiography is required.