Basic Information Sheet: Greek or Spur-Thighed Tortoise

Greek or Spur-Thighed Tortoise (Testudo graeca complex)

Greek or Spur-Thighed Tortoises

Juvenile Testudo graeca ibera (left); T. g. graeca (right). Photo credit: Massimo Lazzari via Wikimedia Commons

Natural history



Testudo (graeca) ibera shares many similarities with Testudo hermanni with respect to their natural environment, natural climate, natural diet, and hibernation period. The habitat for these species includes arid areas from sea level to greater than 3000 m altitude, however their environmental preferences are grassland, forest, and savannah.

  • Testudo graeca graeca are found from northern Morocco to Libya, in southern Spain, and in Sardinia or Sicily.
  • Testudo graeca terrestris are found in southern Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and from Israel to northern Egypt or Libya. In the pet trade it is often called the Golden Greek Tortoise because of its light-colored shell.
  • Testudo graeca zarudnyi are found in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
  • Testudo (graeca) ibera are found in northeast Greece, parts of the Balkans, the northern Aegean islands, and parts of Turkey to Iran or Iraq.
  • As taxonomy is still in question, specimens in the pet trade can be various subspecies.


Conservation status



Wild populations are listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN Red List and are included in CITES Appendix II.

Taxonomy



Class: Reptilia

Order: Chelonia/Testudines

Family: Testudinidae

Genus: Testudo

Testudo graeca

Testudo graeca graeca

Testudo graeca terrestris

Testudo graeca zarudnyi

Taxonomy of spur-thighed tortoises has been in a state of flux for decades. Some sources use the names “spur-thighed tortoise” and “Greek tortoise” interchangeably, however Mader (2006) identified the spur-thighed tortoise as Testudo graeca ibera. Chitty (2013) indicates that Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) and Greek spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo ibera) are separate species altogether. A study published in Chelonian Conservation and Biology (2012) referred to Testudo graeca ibera as the Eurasian spur-thighed tortoise.


Physical description


Size

Testudo (graeca) ibera is a medium-sized tortoise ranging from 18-21 cm (7-8 in) in length. Testudo graeca graeca is relatively small: 13-16 cm (5-6 in) (Hernández-Divers 2003). This species can measure up to 30 cm (12 in) in length (or more) with a maximum weight of approximately 6 kg (13 lb).

Color

The carapace is brownish yellow with black patches. Testudo ibera is often paler in color than Testudo graeca, although darker populations do occur.

Testudo ibera has a flatter and broader carapace than Testudo graeca and the first vertebral scute is more angular in Testudo ibera compared to the more rounded shape in Testudo graeca.

spur thigh Mayer Richard FCCTestudo graeca can be distinguished from other members of genus Testudo by the presence of an enlarged tubercle (arrows left, click image to enlarge) on the medial thigh and an undivided supracaudal scute. Occasionally double or triple spurs are present, with one being obviously dominant. This species also lacks a horny terminal tip to the tail.


Diet



The natural diet of Testudo ibera consists of a wide variety of fibrous plants, especially their flowers (Divers 2003). Testudo ibera is more omnivorous than Testudo graeca and some free-ranging individuals may consume mollusks and insects. The bulk of the captive diet consists of greens, grasses, and flowers. Tortoises are also fed other vegetables as well as a small quantity of fruit. See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet for additional information.

Housing


TemperatureDayBasking spotNightSources
20°C-27°C  (68°F – 81°F)Generally 5°C (9°F) higher than daytime rangeDrops by ~5°C (9°F)Gibbons 2012, Divers 2003
HumidityTestudo graeca prefers a relative humidity of 30%-50% (Gibbons 2012). Testudo graeca graeca is particularly sensitive to climatic variations and does better with high humidity ranging from 40%-75% (Hernández-Divers 2003).
LightingArtificial UVB lighting is recommended for captive specimens. See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet for additional information.
Cage size and designTestudo (graeca) ibera tortoises are relatively hardy and this species handles climatic variations reasonably well. Therefore tortoises are usually housed outdoors during the summer months. Visit the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet for additional information.
Social structureTestudo graeca graeca does not mix well with other species
Hibernation/ aestivationHibernation for Testudo (graeca) ibera can last from November to April in free-ranging specimens. This high-altitude species is overwintered between 5°C-10°C (40°F-50°F) in a suitably prepared area (see guidelines for Testudo marginata). Never expose these tortoises to below-freezing temperatures. Smaller species found at sea level tend not to hibernate. Instead free-ranging Testudo graeca graeca may aestivate underground during hot weather (Hernández-Divers (2003).


Normal physiologic values


Longevity records:127 years; at least 57 years in captivity
Incubation period60 days


Anatomy/ physiology



See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet

Restraint



See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet

Venipuncture



See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet

Preventive medicine



See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet

Important medical conditions



Tortoise herpesvirus 3 has been frequently described in genus Testudo. Urolithiasis is also a relatively common disorder  in Testudo graeca.
Other conditions reported in T. graeca include:

  • Post-hibernation blindness from retinal damage (hypovitaminosis A)
  • Picornaviruses are most frequently isolated from Testudo graeca
  • The Ferlavirus genus of paramyxoviruses has also been detected in Testudo graeca.

See the Mediterranean Tortoise Basic Information Sheet for additional information.


Quiz


Click here to access LafeberVet’s Testudo Tortoise Fast 5 Quiz.

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References and further reading