Article  Teaching Module 

Avian Quick Links

LafeberVet’s list of avian medicine links will assist your navigation of some of the avian medicine resources on LafeberVet. Educate yourself before laying  hands on the avian patient by reviewing the basics of avian anatomy and physiology as well as important principles of handling and restraint. Then explore content on the examination and history, behavior, housing and nutrition, as well as supportive care techniques, diagnostics, basic therapeutics, and common presenting problems. Start with content listed in the rows titled, “Begin with…”, then expand your knowledge with other sections, such as “Learn more…”.

Client Education Handout 

The Raccoon Roundworm

The raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis is widespread in raccoons in North America, however this parasite has also been introduced to Europe and Asia. Use this client education handout to increase awareness of this zoonotic pathogen in caretakers of young children, home owners living in areas where raccoons might be present, as well as workers exposed to raccoons or their feces during the course of their day. This handout provides simple tips that can be used to curb infection caused by the raccoon roundworm, emphasizing avoidance and prevention of exposure to infective eggs.

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Baylisascaris procyonis

This zoonotic concern article reviews Baylisascaris procyonis or the raccoon roundworm. Baylisascaris procyonis exhibits a typical ascarid life cycle with adult female worms in the raccoon intestine depositing eggs that are shed in the raccoon feces. Humans can serve as paratenic or accidental hosts of B. procyonis, however more than 150 species of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, and domestic animals have also been afflicted. When infective eggs are ingested by paratenic hosts, Baylisascaris larvae can migrate through the brain, eye, and other organs, causing serious health issues. Who is most at risk? What strategies can be implemented to prevent exposure to infective roundworm eggs?

Article  Video  Webinar 

Zoonoses Associated with Exotic Pets

Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans, and some estimate that 75% of emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic. Many of these zoonoses come from non-domestic animals. This RACE-approved webinar recording presented by Marcy Souza, DVM, MPH MPPA, DABVP (Avian), DACVPM provided an overview of common zoonoses associated with non-domestic or exotic pets, including but not limited to salmonellosis, influenza, chlamydiosis, monkeypox, rabies, and various parasitic diseases. Recent outbreaks of zoonoses in exotic pets and people are also highlighted. Dr. Souza also discusses the potential role of non-domestic species in the emergence and/or transmission of novel pathogens in the future.

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Psittacosis in Birds

Individuals that work or live with birds may be at risk for zoonotic diseases. An average 250 human cases of Chlamydophila psittaci are reported annually in the United States.

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Encephalitozoonosis in European Rabbits

Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligatory intracellular microsporidian parasite that can infect a wide range of mammals, including humans. The primary host for E. cuniculi is the rabbit and infections in rabbits are typically subclinical. This zoonotic concern article reviews transmission and clinical disease in humans.

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Salmonellosis in Reptiles

Most reptiles are asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella spp., which can be spread through direct or indirect contact with the reptile or its droppings. This brief zoonotic concern article asks: How is Salmonella transmitted to humans? Who is most at risk? What are the signs of salmonellosis in human patients? And how can reptile-associated salmonellosis be prevented?

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Tularemia in Rabbits and Rodents

Tularemia is a highly pathogenic disease of animals and humans that has been reported throughout the northern hemisphere including North America, Europe, and Asia. In the United States, naturally occurring infections have been reported in all states except Hawaii. This brief review article answers several questions. What species are most commonly affected by tularemia? How do humans contract tularemia? What are the signs of tularemia in humans, and what can be done to prevent exposure?

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus in Rodents

The physical and psychological benefits of pet ownership have been well established, however close contact with pets is not without risks including the potential for transmission of zoonotic disease. Rodents can carry a number of potential pathogens including lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is found throughout the world in wild rodents. Disease is especially common in…

Article 

Required Reading for Animal Care Staff: Zoonoses

More than 200 diseases are zoonotic or common to animals and humans. Veterinary staff members are continually exposed to animals that potentially carry infectious disease. This risk is an acceptable one as long as the risk is known, understood, and preventive measures are taken. These preventive measures are fairly straightforward and include…

Client Education Handout 

Avian Influenza

Use this client education handout to answer the following questions: What is bird flu? What are the signs of disease in birds? What are the signs of avian influenza in humans? And why are some strains of bird flu cause for international concern?

Avian influenza or “bird flu” is a group of viral infections that occur naturally among birds. Some wild birds like waterfowl can carry influenza viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them. Infected birds shed flu virus in saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Other birds may be easily infected when they come into direct contact with secretions from infected birds or…