A Clinician’s Perspective on Avian Ganglioneuritis and Avian Bornavirus
This live, interactive, RACE-approved webinar reviewed avian ganglioneuritis (formerly proventricular dilatation disease or PDD) and avian bornavirus which are extremely complex and potentially confusing topics. This lecture began with what is currently known (including varying viewpoints among the scientific community) and emphasized what clinicians need to know about the disease, including diagnostic and treatment options, and the latest discoveries reported in the literature to help guide best practices.
Exotic Small Mammal Anesthesia
Exotic small mammals can be challenging to safely induce, maintain and recover from general anesthesia. View the recording of this RACE-approved webinar, which explores clinical anesthesia in exotic companion mammals from patient assessment and anesthetic induction to monitoring and recovery. This recording discusses the importance of proper physical examinations, the pharmacology of common anesthetic drugs or fluids, including the use of constant rate infusions and locoregional anesthesia techniques, intravenous and intraosseous catheterization, intubation techniques, and how to choose monitoring equipment in common companion exotic small mammal species.
Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease and Vaccination
This live webinar event by Dr. Amanda Jones was RACE approved for 1 hour of continuing education. This presentation reviewed the history, pathobiology and transmission of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Dr. Jones also reviewed vaccines available in Europe and North America. The target audience for this presentation was primarily North American veterinary health professionals, but there useful information was provided for anyone interested in this disease. Stay Tuned: A RACE-approved webinar recording will be available soon.
Amphibian Sedation and Anesthesia
This RACE-approved webinar recording was presented by Douglas Whiteside,DVM, DVSc, DACZM, DECZM (ZHM). Similar to other vertebrate species, sedation or anesthesia may be required in amphibians for various diagnostic, clinical, and surgical interventions. An understanding of clinically relevant anatomy and physiology, a pre-anesthetic protocol, the selection of appropriate anesthetic drugs to safely conduct a desired procedure, appropriate anesthetic monitoring, and post-anesthetic planning all are key to successfully managing the amphibian patient through an anesthetic event…
Avian Neonatology and Pediatrics
This live webinar was presented by Lorenzo Crosta, med Vet, PhD, DECZM, EBVS European Veterinary Specialist in Zoo Health Management. View the RACE-approved webinar recording, then take a brief quiz to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. The objective of this presentation is to assist the exotic animal practitioner, with little or no experience in avian neonatology and pediatrics. This presentation discusses the logical diagnostic plan in the young bird. The approach to common pediatric conditions, ranging from developmental and orthopedic problems to common traumatic injuries and infectious diseases, is also explored. Practical clinical examples are presented.
Avian Cardiology Essentials
Cardiovascular disease commonly occurs in companion birds and poses a serious threat to the quality of life and longevity of many avian species. This live, interactive, RACE-approved webinar was presented by avian veterinarian, Brenna Fitzgerald. Topics discussed include key features of avian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, risk factors, as well as specific clinical disease states, including atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and pericardial disease and effusion. This lecture also reviewed essential elements of a diagnostic workup, and current treatment approaches that can improve longevity and quality of life for these patients.
Keeping and Treating Mediterranean Tortoises
John Chitty BVetMed CertZooMed MRCVS presented a live, interactive webinar on the unique features of this group of terrestrial Chelonia and how these adaptations to a unique biome affect husbandry and disease investigation. This presentation provides an overview on identification and sexing, captive husbandry, hibernation needs and management, reproduction and follicular stasis, clinical investigations, hospitalization needs, and disease prevention.
Decision Making in Rabbit Gastrointestinal Syndrome
View this RACE-approved webinar recording presented by Joanne Sheen BVM&S CertZooMed DABVP (Exotic Companion Mammal Practice): “To Cut or Not to Cut… Decision Making in Rabbit Gastrointestinal Syndrome”. This seminar reviews rabbit gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology as well as the baseline diagnostic workup in RGIS. Treatment is dependent on the underlying etiology. Fluid therapy and analgesia are considered cornerstones in the management of gastrointestinal disease in rabbits, but other specific treatments such as active warming, intestinal promotility agents, antimicrobials, and nutritional support may also be warranted. Surgery may be indicated for some conditions, such as intestinal obstruction, liver lobe torsion, and appendicitis…
Rabbit Nutrition and Critical Care Feeding
Kara M. Burns, MS, MEd, LVT,VTS (Nutrition) presented this distance-learning event for the veterinary medical students at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine as part of the Lafeber Company Student Program. View the RACE-approved webinar recording, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.
Avian Radiology: Basic Principles, Reference Values & Clinical Cases
View the RACE-approved recording of the live webinar presented by Minh Huynh, DVM, MRCVS, DECZM (Avian), DAZCM. Avian radiography is an invaluable tool to assess internal disorders and to screen for subclinical disease in birds. Coelomic organs can be examined for cardiorespiratory, digestive, or urogenital disease. Radiographs also extremely useful to diagnose appendicular skeleton lesions, especially in case of trauma. Proper positioning is crucial for accurate interpretation and general anesthesia or sedation is usually recommended for optimal image acquisition. Standard and non-standard views as well as indications and limitations of radiography will be discussed. This presentation will also explore a standardized, step-by-step evaluation of conventional radiographs. A review of the current literature will be used to enhance this discussion of clinical cases.
Ultrasound in Birds
Dr. Petra Schnitzer presented this distance-learning event for the veterinary medical students at the University of Georgia at Athens College of Veterinary Medicine as part of the Lafeber Company Student Program. Stay Tuned: This program is being submitted for approval by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Continuing Education for 1 hour of continuing education credit.
Zoonoses Associated with Exotic Pets
Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans, and some estimate that 75% of emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic. Many of these zoonoses come from non-domestic animals. This RACE-approved webinar recording presented by Marcy Souza, DVM, MPH MPPA, DABVP (Avian), DACVPM provided an overview of common zoonoses associated with non-domestic or exotic pets, including but not limited to salmonellosis, influenza, chlamydiosis, monkeypox, rabies, and various parasitic diseases. Recent outbreaks of zoonoses in exotic pets and people are also highlighted. Dr. Souza also discusses the potential role of non-domestic species in the emergence and/or transmission of novel pathogens in the future.
Reptile and Amphibian Nutrition
Dr. Thomas Boyer presented this live, interactive webinar. The RACE-approved recording discusses nutrition, the leading cause of disease in reptiles and amphibians. Chronic nutritional diseases remain common, including nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, hepatic lipidosis, protein deficiency, hypovitaminosis A, hypervitaminosis A, pyramidal shell growth, renal disease, urocystoliths, thiamine deficiency, vitamin E/selenium deficiency, steatitis, corneal lipidosis, and obesity. The goal of this web-based seminar is to educate veterinary health professionals such that they can provide sound nutritional advice to reptile and amphibian keepers. Dr. Boyer has also shared his client education handout on growing mealworms and superworms.
Medical, Nursing & Cosmetic Procedures of Birds of Prey
Dr. Jaime Samour presented Part 1 (medical and nursing procedures) of his presentation for the Avian, Wildlife & Exotics club at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, and Part 2 (cosmetic procedures) for Mississippi State University. These distance-learning events were hosted by the Lafeber Company Student Program.
Gastrointestinal Stasis in Rabbits
Dr. Jessica Magnotti of Stahl Exotic Animal Veterinary Services presented this distance-learning event for the veterinary medical students at Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine as part of the Lafeber Company Student Program. View this webinar recording “GI Stasis in Rabbits: Demystifying the ‘Silent Killer‘, approved for 1 hour of continuing education.
Moving From Compassion Fatigue to Compassion Resilience
Caring for others can be extremely satisfying, yet it can also incur a cost, “the cost of caring,” commonly known as compassion fatigue. Compassion fatigue is recognized as an occupational hazard within the high care professions where compassion is at the core of practice. Debbie L. Stoewn, DVM, MSW, RSW, PhD presented this live, interactive, 1-hour RACE-approved webinar, hosted by LafeberVet. Topics covered include compassion, a healthcare priority, core value, and ethical imperative, understanding compassion fatigue as the manifestation of secondary traumatic stress and burnout or chronic empathic distress, as well as causes, symptoms, and consequences of compassion fatigue. This seminar also explores approaches to mitigate, transform, and treat compassion fatigue to build compassion resilience.
Small Mammal Imaging and Radiographic Cases
This RACE-approved, non-interactive webinar recording presented by Natalie Antinoff, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice) explores radiography and sonography of exotic companion mammals. Topics covered include restraint and positioning, normal radiographic anatomy of ferrets, rabbits, and popular rodent species, as well as unique anatomic features of the sugar glider and hedgehog. Common pathologic conditions as well as typical radiographic findings are also explored, and case examples are used to emphasize key concepts.
Australian Wildfire & Wildlife Insights
The 2019/2020 wildfires put the plight of Australian wildlife and the realities of climate change on the international stage. This RACE-approved webinar recording consists of two, 1-hour seminars that explore the impact of Australian bushfires on wildlife. Part 1, presented by Dr Talbot, explores the basics of patient assessment and triage as well as management of pain, smoke inhalation, and burns for the unique species found in Australia. Part 2 summarizes Dr. Campbell-Ward’s research evaluating the key rescue/rehabilitation-related wild animal welfare outcomes and ethical dilemmas encountered during the Australian bushfires.
View this RACE-approved webinar recording “Fowl Detectives: Using Physical Exam & Clinical Signs to Diagnose Poultry Diseases” presented by Teresa Morishita, DVM, PhD, DACPV. This program is approved for 1 hour of continuing credit in jurisdictions that recognize American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB) Registry of Approved Continuing Education (RACE) approval.
Structure and Function in Raptors
This RACE-approved, continuing education webinar recording, presented by Dr. Jaime Samour, is a terrific opportunity to review (or discover) avian anatomy in general and raptor anatomy in particular. This 1-hour system-by-system review begins with the integumentary system, including plumage, beak, and talons, then moves through the raptor musculoskeletal, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and male and female reproductive systems, as well as circulation, brain and intelligence, plus special senses. View the 1 hour webinar recording, then take the brief quiz to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.
Liberating Wings: The Possibility of Transformative Parrot Conservation
Dr. LoraKim Joyner of One Earth Conservation presented this distance-learning event on parrot conservation for the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Wildlife, Zoological, and Avian Animal Medicine Club as part of the Lafeber Company Student Program.
Rabbit and Large Herbivorous Rodent Dental Disease
Krista Keller, DVM, DACZM presented a live, interactive webinar hosted by LafeberVet. View the RACE-approved, 2-hour presentation, then take the quiz to earn continuing education credit. This webinar first explores clinically relevant anatomy and pathogenesis of congenital and acquired disease. Diagnosis is then discussed, including history, the focused, five-part oral examination, as well as skull radiographs and computed tomography. Therapeutic options, such as coronal height reduction, extractions, and options for odontogenic abscessation, are then presented.
An Introduction to Exotic Animal Medicine
Dr. Gregory Rich of Avian & Exotic Animal Hospital of Louisiana presented this distance-learning event on exotic animal medicine for Texas A&M University ZEW Club. This presentation was sponsored by the Lafeber Company Student Program.
Avian Raw Whole Food Nutrition
Dr. Jason Crean of Saint Xavier University presented this distance-learning event on whole food nutrition in birds for the University of Minnesota College Veterinary Medicine ZEAW Club. This presentation was sponsored by the Lafeber Company Student Program.
Clinical Approach to Amphibian Emergencies
View the RACE-approved webinar recording, presented by Douglas Whiteside, DVM, DVSc, DACZM, DECZM (Zoo Health Management). Topics covered include clinically relevant anatomy and physiology, obtaining a detailed history, triage and emergency therapies, clinical examination, diagnostic testing, analgesia, nutritional support, hospitalization, and euthanasia.
Sedation & Pain Management of Exotic Companion Mammals
Exotic companion small mammals, such as rabbits, rodents, and ferrets, are popular pets, and are frequently presented to veterinary practitioners for several medical reasons. The RACE-approved recording of this live, 1-hour webinar was presented by Dario d’Ovidio, DVM, MS, SpecPACS, DECZM (Small Mammals). Dr. d’Ovidio first compares the value of chemical versus physical restraint and anesthesia versus sedation before discussing the use of specific sedative agents in exotic companion mammals. The presentation then moves to pain management, discussing systemic analgesia and locoregional anesthesia or analgesia.
Introduction to Avian Orthopedics
As part of the Lafeber Company Student Program, Dr. David Scott of the Carolina Raptor Center presented this distance-learning event for the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Zoo & Wildlife Society. View this 61-minute presentation, RACE-approved for 1 hour of continuing education. Dr. Scott explores proper triage, prognosis, and repair options for various fractures as well as post-operative care and protocols, including physical therapy.
Reptile Wildlife Euthanasia Techniques
“The question is not, can they reason? Nor, can they talk? But, can they suffer?” –Jeremy Bentham, philosopher, 1780
Dr. Renée Schott presented a live, interactive webinar on reptile wildlife euthanasia techniques. View the RACE-approved webinar recording today. Wildlife often present to veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators with conditions that warrant euthanasia. It can be difficult, however, to apply mammalian methods of euthanasia to species with unique physiology such as reptiles. This interactive presentation will use cases to discuss practical euthanasia methods for reptiles and the physiology behind these methods. Emphasis will be placed on freshwater turtles as these represent some physiological extremes.
Flight Mechanics, Parrot Welfare, & Ethical Concerns
Dr. Todd E. Driggers presented this live webinar event on Flight Mechanics, Parrot Welfare, and Ethical Concerns. View the video recording, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. Feather trimming birds in captivity has been a common practice performed for many reasons, including fear of loss, safety, and the ability to control and tame. If the gold standard for animal welfare is freedom and feather destructive behavior is a reliable indicator of scientifically studied animal welfare, feather trimming impacts how the animal feels, functions, and prohibits natural responses to positive or aversive stimuli. Perhaps it is time to reflect on the benefits and risks of feather trims through the lens of animal welfare. At a minimum, the degrees of severity of the current techniques need redressing when we consider the experience of the bird.
Avian Anesthesia Webinar
Dr. Lorenzo Crosta present this live webinar on the clinical perspectives of avian anesthesia. View the RACE-approved webinar recording, then take a brief quiz to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. After briefly reviewing clinically relevant avian anatomy and physiology, Dr. Crosta touches upon injectable anesthesia, then discusses in detail preanesthesia and inhalation anesthesia in clinical practice. The discussion then moves onto monitoring the avian patient, from vital parameters to capnography, doppler, electrocardiography, and pulse oximetry. Dr. Crosta also discusses analgesia, intra-operative fluid therapy, as well as specific concerns related to avian anesthesia, such as positioning the patient, hypocalcemia, air sac cannulation, as well as management of diving birds. This seminar concludes with practical tips for safe and uneventful patient recovery.
Critical Care Techniques for Avian Wildlife Emergencies
Dr. Heather Barron presented this webinar on avian critical care. View a recording of the live, interactive event, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. The goal of wildlife medicine is always eventual release and therefore triage of avian wildlife may vary based on case load, regulations, and the presenting situation. Dr. Barron examines the guidelines used to set triage policy and the reasons a bird may not be releasable or have a good quality of life in captivity. She then discusses practical measures intended to alleviate suffering and improve the odds of patient survival, such as fluid support, analgesia, evaluation of blood volume, and transfusion. This presentation concludes with a brief discussion on assessing life and euthanasia.
Clinical Avian Nutrition for Veterinary Health Professionals
Dr. Susan Orosz presented this live, interactive webinar event on the clinical perspectives of avian nutrition. How can veterinary health professionals best address the nutritional needs of the companion bird in the exam room?
Avian Nutrition Basics
This 1-hour, R.A.C.E.-approved webinar recording is designed to impart a basic understanding of avian nutrition for the veterinary health professional as well as students in these fields. Viewing of this recorded is strongly recommended before viewing the recording of the live webinar event Clinical Avian Nutrition for Veterinary Health Professionals by Susan Orosz, PhD, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice), DECZM.
Minimizing Stress to Avian Patients During the Veterinary Visit
This live, interactive webinar was presented by Dr. Alicia McLaughlin, a certified Fear Free™ veterinarian who is spearheading the development of an avian-focused Fear Free™ course. This presentation explores the reasons stress should be minimized during avian veterinary visits and the challenges that must be overcome. Dr. McLaughlin also shares practical tips for clinical implementation as they relate to clinic design, staff training, client education, as well as tips for working with avian patients in an exam room or hospital setting. Alicia has also provided two client education handouts for download that she uses in her daily practice.
Basic Wildlife Rehabilitation Triage
View the recording of this case-based presentation, which aims to cover the basics while also offering helpful tips, tricks, and insights for the experienced rehabilitator or veterinarian. Topics covered include wildlife rehabilitation fundamentals, emergency triage as it applies to wildlife care, and guidelines used to assess patient condition and determine the most humane treatment plan.
Routine Veterinary Care of the Miniature Pig
Mini pigs remain a surprisingly common pet, with a resurgence in popularity every few years. Owners typically have a “small animal mindset”, and as such, seek like-minded veterinarians, but lack of training and paucity of resources leads many veterinarians to shy away from these unique pets. This recording of the live, interactive webinar reviews handling and restraint as well as routine veterinary procedures, from physical examination, vaccination, and nutrition to therapeutics such as hoof trim, tusk trim, and deworming protocols.
Reproductive Disease in Reptiles
Reptile reproduction can be a confusing topic due to the variety of normal reproductive strategies found throughout different reptile species. Nevertheless it important to understand normal reproductive processes to correctly approach some commonly seen problems. The recording of this RACE-approved, webinar discusses normal reproductive strategies of reptiles, including important reproductive anatomy and physiology. Three clinically important conditions, pre-ovulatory or follicular stasis, post-ovulatory dystocia, and cloacal prolapse, are also explored in detail.
Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits
This free, R.A.C.E.-approved continuing education webinar, Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits, was presented by Charly Pignon, DVM, DECZM (Small Mammal) on November 7, 2018. Lecture topics of this webinar recording include emergency triage, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, analgesia, fluid therapy, and critical care nutrition.
What Parrots Want: The Importance and Use of Foraging and Environmental Enrichment for Birds
This webinar recording is RACE-approved for 1 hour of continuing education. Despite parrots being popular pets, much of the information regarding their nutritional and behavioral needs is still unknown. Unlike dogs and cats, most psittacine species are not domesticated and have therefore likely retained most, if not all, of their wild instincts and behavioral needs. In captivity, however, most parrots have little to no opportunity to perform these species-typical behaviors. This will not only reduce their welfare, but can also result in the onset of abnormal repetitive behaviors, including feather damaging behavior, and oral or locomotor stereotypies.
Avian Respiratory Anatomy, Physiology & Diseases: An Overview
This live webinar event was presented by James Morrisey, DVM, DABVP (AvianPractice). View a recording of this AAVSB R.A.C.E.-approved web-based seminar, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. The avian respiratory system has several unique and fascinating adaptations for flight that are important to clinicians. This webinar overviews the anatomy and physiology of the avian respiratory tract. Clinical correlates are pointed out as the presenter goes through anatomy and physiology. Clinical signs of respiratory disease in birds are then discussed along with how the clinician can use these signs to anatomically locate the origin of the problem to the upper respiratory tract, the major airways, the pulmonary parenchyma, and/or the coelomic cavity.
Five Common Reptile Emergencies
View a recording of this AAVSB R.A.C.E.-approved web-based seminar presented by Eric Klaphake, DVM, DACZM, DABVP (Avian Practice), DABVP (Reptile & Amphibian), then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. This webinar explores five common reptile clinical presentations in detail: trauma, gastrointestinal foreign body, neurological deficits, respiratory difficulty, and reproductive problems.
Spotlight on Anesthesia & Analgesia in Reptiles
This live webinar event was presented by Javier Nevarez, DVM, PhD, DACZM, DECZM (Herpetology). View a recording of Dr. Nevarez’s web-based seminar and earn 1 hour of R.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credit. Lecture objectives include a review of the principles and concepts of reptile analgesia, recommended analgesics, signs of pain and pain recognition, and a review of analgesic protocols. The presentation also reviews principles and concepts of reptile anesthesia, popular anesthetic agents and anesthetic protocols, monitoring, as well as keys to success.
Best Practices: Cytodiagnosis in Exotic Pet Practice
This RACE-approved continuing education webinar was presented by Terry Campbell, MS, DVM, PhD. View a recording of this web-based seminar to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. Cytology is a simple, rapid diagnostic procedure requiring little in terms of equipment and cost to the veterinarian. Most clinical veterinarians are familiar with sample collection techniques for domestic mammals; which also apply to the small exotic mammals. Common cytological specimens used in avian and reptilian medicine include: aspirates, imprints of biopsy material, tracheal washes, crop (ingluvies) aspirates or washes in birds, gastric washes in reptiles, sinus aspirates, lung washes in reptiles, aspiration of coelomic fluid, and fecal smears.
Quality Exotic Small Mammal Anesthesia
In 2023, Ms. Nugent-Deal shared an updated video recording on this topic: Exotic Small Mammal Anesthesia. View this new, RACE-approved webinar recording.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract: Clinical Applications
As a part of the Encore ICARE 2015 Lafeber Symposium Lecture Series, Dr. Susan Orosz provided an introductory presentation on anatomy and physiology of the avian gastrointestinal tract. View a recording of this AAVSB RACE-approved webinar, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.
Medical Management of Psittacines with Bornavirus Ganglioneuritis (PDD)
Did you attend the Lafeber Symposium at the 2015 International Conference on Avian heRpetological and Exotic mammal medicine in Paris? View a recording of this encore, web-based seminar: “Medical Management of Psittacines with Bornavirus Ganglioneuritis (PDD)” by Susan Orosz, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice), DECZM (Avian). This presentation on avian borna virus contains medium to advanced level content. The novice is encouraged to view the first hour of Dr. Orosz’s presentation “Anatomy & Physiology of the Avian Gastrointestinal Tract: Clinical Applications”, which includes a helpful review of avian gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology.
Nutritional Support to the Critical Exotic Patient
View the recording of this free, interactive webinar, presented by Neil Forbes, BVetMed DECZM (Avian) FRCVS. Many sick or injured exotic animals are presented in critical condition. More of these patients can be saved by appropriate fluids and nutritional support, than by any single medical or surgical procedure. In practical terms, providing this support is often easier said than done. Dr. Forbes’ presentation serves to demystify some of the challenges encountered; practical solutions for all exotic patients are described and discussed.
Feather Destructive Behavior in Psittacine Birds Webinar
The AAVSB R.A.C.E.-approved webinar “Feather Destructive Behavior in Psittacine Birds” was presented by Lynne Seibert, DVM, MS, PhD, Dipl. American College of Veterinary Behaviorists. View a recording of this web-based seminar, then take the post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.
Grey Parrot Anatomy Project Veterinary Webinar
When Dr. Michelle Hawkins of the Companion Exotic Animal Medicine & Surgery Service of the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine expressed interest in an encore presentation of the Grey Parrot Anatomy Project for veterinary medical students, Dr. M. Scott Echols and LafeberVet were happy to oblige. Veterinary medical educators and their students were invited to attend this free, interactive, web-based seminar featuring incredible avian anatomy images, video clips that enhance our understanding of anatomy, and an exciting research update…
Critical Care Nutrition
When Kara Burns, veterinary technician specialist in nutrition, visited Tuskegee University School of Veterinary Medicine during the fall of 2014, her lecture on critical care nutrition made a big impression on the veterinary medical students. This 48-minute presentation explores the basics of nutritional supportive care appropriate for all species before concluding with information on nutritional support of special species like birds, reptiles and exotic companion mammals.