Article  Webinar 

Amphibian Sedation and Anesthesia

This live webinar event by Dr. Douglas Whiteside is RACE approved for 1 hour of continuing education. Amphibians’ popularity as pets has increased significantly over the past decade. They also are frequently managed in zoological and research collections, and wild amphibians can present to wildlife rehabilitation facilities. Similar to other vertebrate species, sedation or anesthesia may be required for various diagnostic, clinical, and surgical interventions. An understanding of clinically relevant anatomy and physiology, a pre-anesthetic protocol, the selection of appropriate anesthetic drugs to safely conduct a desired procedure, appropriate anesthetic monitoring, and post-anesthetic planning all are key to successfully managing the amphibian patient through an anesthetic event…

Article  Client Education Handout 

Care of Senior or Geriatric Domestic Rabbits

The objective of this educational resource is to empower owners on how best to care for their senior or geriatric rabbits. The reader will learn how to ensure common geriatric conditions do not become a welfare concern for their pet. The goal is not to “cure” but rather manage geriatric diseases, such as cataracts, arthritis, and even cognitive decline.

Article 

Parrot Anatomy Basics

Parrots are primarily arboreal, diurnal birds found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Parrots belong to Order Psittaciformes and are divided into three families. There are over 350 species of psittacine birds or parrots. If you are comfortable with the basic principles of avian anatomy and physiology, then you are well on your way to understanding psittacine birds. LafeberVet has listed 16 interesting facts about parrot anatomy and physiology that may serve you well during physical examination, clinical care, and/or necropsy. This post also brief describes the Quaker or monk parrot as well as unique features of the kākāpō.

Article  Product information 

Lafeber’s New Health & Nutrition Kits

The majority of bird owners need guidance when it comes to avian nutrition, and it can be time consuming!

Our new Health and Nutrition Kits help your team save time by providing clients with instructions and tips on how to convert from a seed mix diet to nutritionally balanced diets along with 5 trial size portions of […]

Article  Teaching Module 

Bird Basics Teaching Module

What are the basics of avian medicine that a novice veterinary health professional should know before laying hands on the companion parrot patient? Upon completion of this learning aid, the participant will have a basic clinical understanding of avian anatomy, psittacine handling and restraint, history and physical examination, zoonotic concerns, nutrition, basic diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, as well as a few select presenting problems.

Article  Webinar 

Avian Neonatology and Pediatrics

This live webinar was presented by Lorenzo Crosta, med Vet, PhD, DECZM, EBVS European Veterinary Specialist in Zoo Health Management. The objective of this presentation was to assist the exotic animal practitioner, with little or no experience in avian neonatology and pediatrics. This presentation discussed the logical diagnostic plan in the young bird. The approach to common pediatric conditions, ranging from developmental and orthopedic problems to common traumatic injuries and infectious diseases, was also explored. Practical clinical examples were presented.

Article  Teaching Module 

Avian Quick Links

LafeberVet’s list of avian medicine links will assist your navigation of some of the avian medicine resources on LafeberVet. Educate yourself before laying  hands on the avian patient by reviewing the basics of avian anatomy and physiology as well as important principles of handling and restraint. Then explore content on the examination and history, behavior, housing and nutrition, as well as supportive care techniques, diagnostics, basic therapeutics, and common presenting problems. Start with content listed in the rows titled, “Begin with…”, then expand your knowledge with other sections, such as “Learn more…”.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Pionus

The birds of genus Pionus are native to regions of Mexico, Central America, and/or South America. Pionus parrots are often described as “small Amazon parrots” because of their stocky builds and often short, square tails. This information sheet reviews natural history, taxonomy, and conservation status, as well as physical descriptions, husbandry needs, behavior, including the Pionus “snarfle or snuffle”, normal physiologic data and anatomy, restraint, and important medical conditions.

Article  Teaching Module 

Reptile Venipuncture Teaching Module

Hematology and biochemistry results serve as an important part of the minimum database for all veterinary patients. Use three videos on blood collection in lizards, snakes, and chelonians (or text with still images) plus one slideshow on general principles to better understand reptile venipuncture and to improve your ability to obtain a clinically useful sample. This teaching module is approved for 1 hour of continuing credit for veterinarians and veterinary technicians by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Approved Continuing Education.

Article 

2022 AEMV Veterinary Technology Contest

Lafeber Company was proud to sponsor the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians (AEMV) Veterinary Technology Client Education Materials Contest. Credentialed veterinary technicians, veterinary technologists, veterinary nurses, as well as students in this field were encouraged to submit a two-page, English-language educational handout (1500 words or less) about a companion exotic mammal health and wellness topic.

Article  Video 

Blood Collection in Turtles and Tortoises

Successful venipuncture can be a challenge in turtles and tortoises, however hematology and biochemistry results serve as an important part of the minimum database in chelonians just as they do for all veterinary patients. Use this video, or text with still images, to review the equipment needed and sample handling recommendations as well as the potential complications and proper approach to the jugular vein, brachial vein, subcarapacial vessel, and dorsal coccygeal sinus in the chelonian.

Article 

2022 AEMV Veterinary Medical Student Case Report Contest

Lafeber Company was proud to sponsor the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians (AEMV) Veterinary Medical Student Case Report Contest. Veterinary students from all over the world were encouraged to write a 2-page case report (1500 words or less) about an exotic companion mammal seen at their college of veterinary medicine or during a clinical experience. And the winners are…

Article  Video  Webinar 

Avian Cardiology Essentials

Cardiovascular disease commonly occurs in companion birds and poses a serious threat to the quality of life and longevity of many avian species. This live, interactive, RACE-approved webinar was presented by avian veterinarian, Brenna Fitzgerald. Topics discussed include key features of avian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, risk factors, as well as specific clinical disease states, including atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, and pericardial disease and effusion. This lecture also reviewed essential elements of a diagnostic workup, and current treatment approaches that can improve longevity and quality of life for these patients.

Article  Video 

Blood Collection in Lizards

Hematology and biochemistry results are an important part of the minimum database for all veterinary patients, including lizards. Proper venipuncture technique is critical for accurate interpretation of laboratory results. Blood samples are most frequently collected from the ventral coccygeal vein and jugular vein in lizards; however, the site selected can depend on a variety of factors including the preferences and experience of the phlebotomist, the volume of blood needed, patient size and temperament, and of course the species involved.

Article  Video 

Blood Collection in Snakes

Proper patient handling, blood collection technique and sample handling are all critical for accurate interpretation of hematology and biochemistry in all patients, including snakes. Use the video or text with still images to review equipment needed as well as the potential complications and proper approach to the ventral coccygeal vein and the heart, the two most common venipuncture sites in the snake.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Keeping and Treating Mediterranean Tortoises

John Chitty BVetMed CertZooMed MRCVS presented a live, interactive webinar on the unique features of this group of terrestrial Chelonia and how these adaptations to a unique biome affect husbandry and disease investigation. This presentation provides an overview on identification and sexing, captive husbandry, hibernation needs and management, reproduction and follicular stasis, clinical investigations, hospitalization needs, and disease prevention.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Decision Making in Rabbit Gastrointestinal Syndrome

View this RACE-approved webinar recording presented by Joanne Sheen BVM&S CertZooMed DABVP (Exotic Companion Mammal Practice): “To Cut or Not to Cut… Decision Making in Rabbit Gastrointestinal Syndrome”. This seminar reviews rabbit gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology as well as the baseline diagnostic workup in RGIS. Treatment is dependent on the underlying etiology. Fluid therapy and analgesia are considered cornerstones in the management of gastrointestinal disease in rabbits, but other specific treatments such as active warming, intestinal promotility agents, antimicrobials, and nutritional support may also be warranted. Surgery may be indicated for some conditions, such as intestinal obstruction, liver lobe torsion, and appendicitis…

Article  Video  Webinar 

Rabbit Nutrition and Critical Care Feeding

Kara M. Burns, MS, MEd, LVT,VTS (Nutrition) presented this distance-learning event for the veterinary medical students at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine as part of the Lafeber Company Student Program. View the RACE-approved webinar recording, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Avian Radiology: Basic Principles, Reference Values & Clinical Cases

Save the Date for a continuing education webinar presented by Minh Huynh, DVM, MRCVS, DECZM (Avian), DAZCM. Avian radiography is an invaluable tool to assess internal disorders and to screen for subclinical disease in birds. Coelomic organs can be examined for cardiorespiratory, digestive, or urogenital disease. Radiographs also extremely useful to diagnose appendicular skeleton lesions, especially in case of trauma. Proper positioning is crucial for accurate interpretation and general anesthesia or sedation is usually recommended for optimal image acquisition. Standard and non-standard views as well as indications and limitations of radiography will be discussed. This presentation will also explore a standardized, step-by-step evaluation of conventional radiographs. A review of the current literature will be used to enhance this discussion of clinical cases.

Article 

Zoonotic concern: Baylisascaris procyonis

This zoonotic concern article reviews Baylisascaris procyonis or the raccoon roundworm. Baylisascaris procyonis exhibits a typical ascarid life cycle with adult female worms in the raccoon intestine depositing eggs that are shed in the raccoon feces. Humans can serve as paratenic or accidental hosts of B. procyonis, however more than 150 species of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, and domestic animals have also been afflicted. When infective eggs are ingested by paratenic hosts, Baylisascaris larvae can migrate through the brain, eye, and other organs, causing serious health issues. Who is most at risk? What strategies can be implemented to prevent exposure to infective roundworm eggs?

Article 

AEMV Veterinary Medical Student Case Report Contest

Lafeber Company is proud to sponsor the 5th Annual Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Student Case Report Contest. Veterinary medical students everywhere are eligible to submit a 2-page, English-language case report about an exotic companion mammal case seen at your college of veterinary medicine OR during an experience in a clinical setting. Submissions must be received by Friday, April 1, 2022.

Article 

AEMV Veterinary Technology Client Education Materials Contest

Lafeber Company is proud to sponsor the 2nd annual Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Veterinary Technician and Technician Student Client Education Materials Contest. Veterinary technicians and veterinary technology students are invited to submit a 2-page, English-language client education handout about an exotic companion mammal health and wellness topic.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Ultrasound in Birds

Dr. Petra Schnitzer presented this distance-learning event for the veterinary medical students at the University of Georgia at Athens College of Veterinary Medicine as part of the Lafeber Company Student Program. Stay Tuned:  This program is being submitted for approval by the American Association of Veterinary State Boards Registry of Continuing Education for 1 hour of continuing education credit.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Zoonoses Associated with Exotic Pets

Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans, and some estimate that 75% of emerging human infectious diseases are zoonotic. Many of these zoonoses come from non-domestic animals. This RACE-approved webinar recording presented by Marcy Souza, DVM, MPH MPPA, DABVP (Avian), DACVPM provided an overview of common zoonoses associated with non-domestic or exotic pets, including but not limited to salmonellosis, influenza, chlamydiosis, monkeypox, rabies, and various parasitic diseases. Recent outbreaks of zoonoses in exotic pets and people are also highlighted. Dr. Souza also discusses the potential role of non-domestic species in the emergence and/or transmission of novel pathogens in the future.

Article  Client Education Handout  Video  Webinar 

Reptile and Amphibian Nutrition

Dr. Thomas Boyer presented this live, interactive webinar. The RACE-approved recording discusses nutrition, the leading cause of disease in reptiles and amphibians. Chronic nutritional diseases remain common, including nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, hepatic lipidosis, protein deficiency, hypovitaminosis A, hypervitaminosis A, pyramidal shell growth, renal disease, urocystoliths, thiamine deficiency, vitamin E/selenium deficiency, steatitis, corneal lipidosis, and obesity. The goal of this web-based seminar is to educate veterinary health professionals such that they can provide sound nutritional advice to reptile and amphibian keepers. Dr. Boyer has also shared his client education handout on growing mealworms and superworms.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Ramphastidae

The birds of family Ramphastidae are found in South and Central America, from central Mexico to southern Brazil, and include the large toucans, the smaller aracaris, and the very small toucanets. This information sheet reviews natural history and taxonomy, as well as diet, housing, normal physiologic data and anatomy, restraint, behavior, and important medical conditions seen in family Ramphastidae.

Article 

The Importance of Next-Generation Sequencing in Avian Veterinary Medicine

Effective treatment of diseases requires accurate diagnose, and infectious diseases in avian medicine present special diagnostic challenges. Molecular diagnostic tools, such as DNA sequencing, are available to aid the urgent medical need to detect and identify all culprits that cause infections. Next-generation DNA sequencing offers the ability to diagnose infections using microbial DNA as the analyte, thus bypassing culture testing along with its deficiencies. This article briefly explains this useful laboratory technique as well as its applications in avian medicine…

Article 

In Memoriam: Dr. Drury Reavill

Exotic animal medicine has lost a leader, a colleague, and a friend in Dr. Drury Reavill. Drury was triple boarded. She became one of the first avian practitioners certified in avian practice through the American Board of Veterinary Practitioners (ABVP) in 1993, and she became a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists in 2000. In 2013, she also earned certification in reptile and amphibian practice through ABVP. Dr. Reavill was the Director of Zoo/Exotic Pathology Service from 1998 to 2019. She has received numerous awards and accolades including an Inaugural Award for Outstanding Contributions to Exotic Animal Medicine in 2020. This Award was presented jointly by AAV, AEMV, and ARAV in recognition of her outstanding achievements in the field of exotic animal medicine.

Article  Quiz  Video  Webinar 

Moving From Compassion Fatigue to Compassion Resilience

Caring for others can be extremely satisfying, yet it can also incur a cost, “the cost of caring,” commonly known as compassion fatigue. Compassion fatigue is recognized as an occupational hazard within the high care professions where compassion is at the core of practice. Debbie L. Stoewn, DVM, MSW, RSW, PhD presented this live, interactive, 1-hour RACE-approved webinar, hosted by LafeberVet. Topics covered include compassion, a healthcare priority, core value, and ethical imperative, understanding compassion fatigue as the manifestation of secondary traumatic stress and burnout or chronic empathic distress, as well as causes, symptoms, and consequences of compassion fatigue. This seminar also explores approaches to mitigate, transform, and treat compassion fatigue to build compassion resilience.

Article  Case Study  Quiz  Video  Webinar 

Small Mammal Imaging and Radiographic Cases

This RACE-approved, non-interactive webinar recording presented by Natalie Antinoff, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice) explores radiography and sonography of exotic companion mammals. Topics covered include restraint and positioning, normal radiographic anatomy of ferrets, rabbits, and popular rodent species, as well as unique anatomic features of the sugar glider and hedgehog. Common pathologic conditions as well as typical radiographic findings are also explored, and case examples are used to emphasize key concepts.

Article  Webinar 

Australian Wildfire & Wildlife Insights

The 2019/2020 wildfires put the plight of Australian wildlife and the realities of climate change on the international stage. This RACE-approved webinar recording consists of two, 1-hour seminars that explore the impact of Australian bushfires on wildlife. Part 1, presented by Dr Talbot, explores the basics of patient assessment and triage as well as management of pain, smoke inhalation, and burns for the unique species found in Australia. Part 2 summarizes Dr. Campbell-Ward’s research evaluating the key rescue/rehabilitation-related wild animal welfare outcomes and ethical dilemmas encountered during the Australian bushfires.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Fowl Detectives

View this RACE-approved webinar recording “Fowl Detectives:  Using Physical Exam & Clinical Signs to Diagnose Poultry Diseases” presented by Teresa Morishita, DVM, PhD, DACPV. This program is approved for 1 hour of continuing credit in jurisdictions that recognize American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB) Registry of Approved Continuing Education (RACE) approval.

Article 

2021 AEMV Veterinary Medical Student Case Report Contest

Lafeber Company was proud to sponsor the 2021 Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Student Case Report Contest. Veterinary medical students from all over the world were encouraged to write a 2-page case report about an exotic companion mammal seen at their college of veterinary medicine or during a clinical experience. Submissions closed in March and judges from the Research Committee evaluated the case reports received from seven nations. Judges were blinded to the students, mentors, co-authors, and institutions at which the cases were seen. Read the summary of each winning case report.

Article  Client Education Handout 

2021 AEMV Veterinary Technology Contest

Lafeber Company was proud to sponsor the 2021 Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Veterinary Technician/Technologist and Technician Student Client Education Materials Contest. Credentialed veterinary technicians, veterinary technologists, and veterinary nurses as well as students in this field were encouraged to submit a two (2) page, English-language educational handout (1500 words or less) about a companion exotic mammal health and wellness topic. Submissions closed on April 30. Seventeen client education handouts were received. The AEMV Technician Committee evaluated this educational material and they were blinded to the identify of each veterinary technologists or student.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Structure and Function in Raptors

This RACE-approved, continuing education webinar recording, presented by Dr. Jaime Samour, is a terrific opportunity to review (or discover) avian anatomy in general and raptor anatomy in particular. This 1-hour system-by-system review begins with the integumentary system, including plumage, beak, and talons, then moves through the raptor musculoskeletal, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and male and female reproductive systems, as well as circulation, brain and intelligence, plus special senses. View the 1 hour webinar recording, then take the brief quiz to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Rabbit and Large Herbivorous Rodent Dental Disease

Krista Keller, DVM, DACZM presented a live, interactive webinar hosted by LafeberVet. View the RACE-approved, 2-hour presentation, then take the quiz to earn continuing education credit. This webinar first explores clinically relevant anatomy and pathogenesis of congenital and acquired disease. Diagnosis is then discussed, including history, the focused, five-part oral examination, as well as skull radiographs and computed tomography. Therapeutic options, such as coronal height reduction, extractions, and options for odontogenic abscessation, are then presented.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Axolotl

Native to Lake Xochimilco, its canal systems, and a few neighboring waterways of Mexico City, the axolotl is a neotenic amphibian species closely related to the tiger salamander. This Basic Information Sheet reviews natural history, conservation status, and taxonomy, as well as a number of clinically relevant topics including diet, housing, behavior, restraint, and important medical conditions seen in the axolotl. Login to view references.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Clinical Approach to Amphibian Emergencies

View the RACE-approved webinar recording, presented by Douglas Whiteside, DVM, DVSc, DACZM, DECZM (Zoo Health Management). Topics covered include clinically relevant anatomy and physiology, obtaining a detailed history, triage and emergency therapies, clinical examination, diagnostic testing, analgesia, nutritional support, hospitalization, and euthanasia.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Sedation & Pain Management of Exotic Companion Mammals

Exotic companion small mammals, such as rabbits, rodents, and ferrets, are popular pets, and are frequently presented to veterinary practitioners for several medical reasons. The RACE-approved recording of this live, 1-hour webinar was presented by Dario d’Ovidio, DVM, MS, SpecPACS, DECZM (Small Mammals). Dr. d’Ovidio first compares the value of chemical versus physical restraint and anesthesia versus sedation before discussing the use of specific sedative agents in exotic companion mammals. The presentation then moves to pain management, discussing systemic analgesia and locoregional anesthesia or analgesia.

Article  Slideshow 

Rabbit Husbandry Basics Slideshow

Key points of rabbit husbandry are summarized in this brief Rabbit Husbandry Basics slideshow, designed to serve as a quick clinical refresher for the veterinary health professional. Review the slideshow or read the more detailed Basic Rabbit Care client education handout to review diet, housing, including “bunny proofing”, as well as handling tips for the house rabbit owner.

Article  Teaching Module 

Rabbit Basics Teaching Module

Welcome to LafeberVet’s Rabbit Basics Teaching Module. Level 1 is designed to provide information that the veterinary health professional should know before laying hands on the rabbit patient, including common rabbit breeds, clinically relevant anatomy, behavior, and husbandry.

Article  Quiz  Video 

Introduction to Avian Orthopedics

As part of the Lafeber Company Student Program, Dr. David Scott of the Carolina Raptor Center presented this distance-learning event for the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Zoo & Wildlife Society. View this 61-minute presentation, RACE-approved for 1 hour of continuing education. Dr. Scott explores proper triage, prognosis, and repair options for various fractures as well as post-operative care and protocols, including physical therapy.

Article  Video 

Anesthetic Depth in Exotic Animals: Monitoring the Degree of Central Nervous System Depression

A dedicated anesthetist should be assigned to monitor every patient during the perianesthetic period. The anesthetist is fundamental to patient safety because she assures the patient is not aware, not moving, and not in pain, all while maintaining stable anesthetic depth. A deep plane of anesthesia can lead to hypoventilation and hypoxemia, reduced cardiac output, hypotension, inadequate tissue perfusion, central nervous system (CNS) depression, and prolonged recovery. This review article first explores the stages of anesthesia and then discusses assessment of anesthetic depth in exotic companion mammals, birds, and reptiles.

Article  Teaching Module 

Anesthetic Monitoring Teaching Module

Upon completion of this RACE-approved learning aid, the participant will have a basic clinical understanding of anesthetic monitoring of exotic animal patients: birds, exotic companion mammals, and reptiles.

Article  Teaching Module 

Veterinary Nursing Resources

Many LafeberVet resources can serve as a useful clinical refresher for veterinary technicians or as a learning aid for students of veterinary technology, including educational videos, RACE-approved webinar recordings, teaching modules, and a variety of articles.

Article  Video 

Dacryocystitis and Nasolacrimal Flush in Rabbits

Ocular problems are common in both laboratory and pet rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus), and disease of the nasolacrimal duct is one of the most frequently reported ocular diseases in rabbits. This review article features a brief video illustrating this clinical technique plus step-by-step guidance as well as clinically relevant anatomy and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of dacryocystitis.

Article 

Tusk Trims in Miniature Pigs

Both males and female pigs possess modified upper and lower canine teeth or tusks, however, the tusks of the male retain an open root that allows these teeth to grow throughout life. Tusks can become long and extremely sharp and trims may be necessary to prevent injury to humans, other animals, household furniture, flooring, or even the pig itself. This brief article discusses relevant anatomy, equipment needed, potential complications, sedation, and step-by-step advice for successfully completing this clinical technique.

Article 

Hoof Trims in Miniature Pigs

Hooves that are not maintained can overgrow and curl, resulting in pain, difficulty walking, and damage to the soft tissue structures of the foot. The medial and lateral digits, that do not contact the ground much, will grow long and require trimming in all pet pigs. Therefore most pigs require hoof trims every 6-12 months. This brief article discusses relevant anatomy, equipment needed, potential complications, sedation, and step-by-step advice for successfully completing this clinical technique.

Article  Case Study 

2020 AEMV Student Case Report Contest

Lafeber Company was proud to sponsor the 2020 Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Student Case Report Contest. Veterinary students from all over the world were encouraged to write a 2-page case report about an exotic companion mammal seen at their college of veterinary medicine or during a clinical experience. Submissions closed in March and judges from the Research Committee evaluated the 15 case reports received from eight countries. Judges were blinded to the students, mentors, co-authors, and institutions at which the cases were seen. Read the brief summaries of each winning case report.

Article 

A Necropsy Guide to Serpentes

The postmortem exam is a key diagnostic tool in understanding the reasons for a snake’s morbidity and mortality. Necropsies can provide valuable information to provide a risk assessment for other animals in a population or collection and can help provide closure for a grieving owner. This manuscript reviews the snake necropsy in a systemic, thorough manner, describing normal anatomy and proper collection technique from head to tail.

Article 

COVID Content Catch-Up

According to LitCovid, an open-resource literature hub developed with the support of the US National Institute of Health, over 14,000 relevant articles have been posted to PubMed on the 2019 novel coronavirus. Thousands more articles are available as pre-prints. Obviously this explosion of information can be intimidating for the busy veterinarian, but you can use the national and international resources (listed in Table) to stay current on the latest information. Then turn to this review article and our supplemental LafeberVet Literature Search as well as LafeberVet’s Coronavirus in Animals and Determinants of Viral Infectionto dive a bit deeper into our evolving knowledge of SARS-CoV-2.

Article  Case Study  Webinar 

Reptile Wildlife Euthanasia Techniques

“The question is not, can they reason? Nor, can they talk? But, can they suffer?” –Jeremy Bentham, philosopher, 1780

Dr. Renée Schott presented a live, interactive webinar on reptile wildlife euthanasia techniques. View the RACE-approved webinar recording today. Wildlife often present to veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators with conditions that warrant euthanasia. It can be difficult, however, to apply mammalian methods of euthanasia to species with unique physiology such as reptiles. This interactive presentation will use cases to discuss practical euthanasia methods for reptiles and the physiology behind these methods. Emphasis will be placed on freshwater turtles as these represent some physiological extremes.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Flight Mechanics & Ethical Concerns

Dr. Todd E. Driggers presented this live webinar event on Flight Mechanics, Parrot Welfare, and Ethical Concerns. View the video recording, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. Feather trimming birds in captivity has been a common practice performed for many reasons, including fear of loss, safety, and the ability to control and tame. If the gold standard for animal welfare is freedom and feather destructive behavior is a reliable indicator of scientifically studied animal welfare, feather trimming impacts how the animal feels, functions, and prohibits natural responses to positive or aversive stimuli. Perhaps it is time to reflect on the benefits and risks of feather trims through the lens of animal welfare. At a minimum, the degrees of severity of the current techniques need redressing when we consider the experience of the bird.

Article 

Snake Anatomy Basics

Introduction

Snakes are members of the class Reptilia, order Squamata, and suborder Serpentes. There are over 3,500 species of snakes in the world, however, for the most part, the anatomy of the snake is consistent across species.

Snakes have a long narrow body adapted for crawling and their internal anatomy has evolved to fit into a long […]

Article 

LafeberVet Lit Search: SARS-CoV-2

Introduction

Over 14,000 articles have been posted to PubMed on the 2019 novel coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2. Thousands more articles are available as pre-prints. Obviously this explosion of information can be intimidating for the busy veterinarian, but you can use the resources listed in Table 1 to stay current on the latest information. Then turn to […]

Article 

Coronavirus in Animals: Implications for Veterinary Staff

Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses named for the crown-like spike proteins on their surface. Coronaviruses cause disease in humans and animals, often circulating among camels, cats, and bats. Ferrets are susceptible to infection by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-COv-1), but pathogenicity and host susceptibility can differ based on the viral infective dose and laboratory SARS coronavirus strain. Studies are ongoing to investigate the respiratory pathology and transmission of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) in experimental ferrets.

Article 

Determinants of Viral Infection: An Addendum to Coronaviruses in Animals

What determines the viral host range?

One of the critical determinants of viral host range is the interaction between the coronavirus spike (S) protein (Fig 1) and the host cell receptor. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor for the attachment and uptake of the coronavirus that caused Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-1), is widely expressed […]

Article 

In Memoriam: Dr. Pete Sakas

All of us at Lafeber Company were greatly saddened to learn of the passing of Dr. Peter Sakas. Dr. Pete Sakas joined Niles Animal Hospital in 1980 while still a veterinary medical student, working under Dr. T.J. Lafeber during his college breaks. Dr. Lafeber was so impressed with Dr. Sakas that he was hired immediately after he graduated in 1983. When Dr. Lafeber left clinical practice to build Lafeber Company in 1985, he sold his practice, Niles Animal Hospital, to Dr. Sakas.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Avian Anesthesia Webinar

Dr. Lorenzo Crosta will present this live, interactive, webinar on the clinical perspectives of avian anesthesia. After briefly reviewing clinically relevant avian anatomy and physiology, Dr. Crosta will touch upon injectable anesthesia, then discuss in detail preanesthesia and inhalation anesthesia in clinical practice. The discussion will then move onto monitoring the avian patient, from vital parameters to capnography, doppler, electrocardiography, and pulse oximetry. Dr. Crosta will also discuss analgesia, intra-operative fluid therapy, as well as specific concerns related to avian anesthesia, such as positioning the patient, hypocalcemia, air sac cannulation, as well as management of diving birds. This seminar will conclude with practical tips for safe and uneventful patient recovery.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Critical Care Techniques for Avian Wildlife Emergencies

Dr. Heather Barron presented this webinar on avian critical care. View a recording of the live, interactive event, then take the brief post-test to earn 1 hour of continuing education credit. The goal of wildlife medicine is always eventual release and therefore triage of avian wildlife may vary based on case load, regulations, and the presenting situation. Dr. Barron examines the guidelines used to set triage policy and the reasons a bird may not be releasable or have a good quality of life in captivity. She then discusses practical measures intended to alleviate suffering and improve the odds of patient survival, such as fluid support, analgesia, evaluation of blood volume, and transfusion. This presentation concludes with a brief discussion on assessing life and euthanasia.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Clinical Avian Nutrition for Veterinary Health Professionals

Dr. Susan Orosz presented this live, interactive webinar event on the clinical perspectives of avian nutrition. How can veterinary health professionals best address the nutritional needs of the companion bird in the exam room?

Article  Slideshow  Video  Webinar 

Avian Nutrition Basics

This 1-hour, R.A.C.E.-approved webinar recording is designed to impart a basic understanding of avian nutrition for the veterinary health professional as well as students in these fields. Viewing of this recorded is strongly recommended before viewing the recording of the live webinar event Clinical Avian Nutrition for Veterinary Health Professionals by Susan Orosz, PhD, DVM, DABVP (Avian Practice), DECZM.

Article 

2019 Avian Practitioner of the Year

When nominations closed for the 2019 T.J. Lafeber Avian Practitioner of the Year, a list of 24 outstanding avian veterinarians had been submitted for consideration. The independent Selection Committee narrowed the list to five finalists and the Award recipient, Dr. Lorenzo Crosta, was announced during the Opening Session at ExoticsCon 2019.

Article  Video 

A Guide to Avian Necropsy

The postmortem examination is a valuable part of the diagnostic work-up. Shared by a veterinary pathologist with a special interest in birds, this guide to avian necropsy provides comprehensive instructions for the avian postmortem exam. This article offers step-by-step guidance on avian necropsy with a variety of photographs and video clips that illustrate useful clinical techniques and normal avian anatomy. Feel confident in your knowledge of avian anatomy? You can also “Test Yourself” by identifying the structures shown in four separate images.

Article 

Radial Vein Blood Collection in the Miniature Pig

Blood collection in miniature pigs can be a challenge. Peripheral veins are not readily accessible and some vessels, such as the auricular vein, are inadequate for obtaining sufficient volumes. The radial vein is located along the medial aspect of the forelimb. This vessel is relatively straight and generally superficial.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Miniature Pig

The term “miniature pig” is used to describe a variety of smaller pig breeds as well as crossbreeds. There are at least 14 recognized breeds of miniature pigs, including the Vietnamese potbellied pig, the Juliana pig, the KuneKune, and others. This information sheet reviews natural history and taxonomy, as well as a number of clinically relevant information including (but not limited to) diet, housing, behavior, normal physiologic data and anatomy, restraint, preventive medicine, zoonoses, and important medical conditions seen in the mini pig.

Article 

Body Condition Scoring the Miniature Pig

Miniature pigs reach half their adult weight (32-68 kg) by about 1 year of age and will continue to grow until 3-4 years of age. Pigs easily gain weight and obesity is a very common problem in pet pigs, especially when animals are fed free-choice and not exercised. The risk of obesity in pet pigs can be minimized with client education on body condition scoring as well as regular weighing.

Article  Client Education Handout  Video  Webinar 

Minimizing Stress to Avian Patients During the Veterinary Visit

This live, interactive webinar was presented by Dr. Alicia McLaughlin, a certified Fear Free™ veterinarian who is spearheading the development of an avian-focused Fear Free™ course. This presentation explores the reasons stress should be minimized during avian veterinary visits and the challenges that must be overcome. Dr. McLaughlin also shares practical tips for clinical implementation as they relate to clinic design, staff training, client education, as well as tips for working with avian patients in an exam room or hospital setting. Alicia has also provided two client education handouts for download that she uses in her daily practice.

Article  Case Study 

2019 AEMV Student Case Report Contest

Lafeber Company was proud to sponsor the Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Student Case Report Contest. Veterinary students from all over the world were encouraged to write a 2-page case report about an exotic companion mammal seen at their college of veterinary medicine or during a clinical experience. Submissions closed March 22 and judges from the Research Committee evaluated the 14 case reports received. Judges were blinded to the students, mentors, co-authors, and institutions at which the cases were seen. See the brief summaries of each winning case report. Each student has been encouraged to submit their paper for publishing and for a presentation at ExoticsCon 2020.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Basic Wildlife Rehabilitation Triage

View the recording of this interactive, case-based presentation, which aims to cover the basics while also offering helpful tips, tricks, and insights for the experienced rehabilitator or veterinarian. Topics covered include wildlife rehabilitation fundamentals, emergency triage as it applies to wildlife care, and guidelines used to assess patient condition and determine the most humane treatment plan.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Routine Veterinary Care of the Miniature Pig

Mini pigs remain a surprisingly common pet, with a resurgence in popularity every few years. Owners typically have a “small animal mindset”, and as such, seek like-minded veterinarians, but lack of training and paucity of resources leads many veterinarians to shy away from these unique pets. This recording of the live, interactive webinar reviews handling and restraint as well as routine veterinary procedures, from physical examination, vaccination, and nutrition to therapeutics such as hoof trim, tusk trim, and deworming protocols.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Reproductive Disease in Reptiles

Reptile reproduction can be a confusing topic due to the variety of normal reproductive strategies found throughout different reptile species. Nevertheless it important to understand normal reproductive processes to correctly approach some commonly seen problems. The recording of this RACE-approved, webinar discusses normal reproductive strategies of reptiles, including important reproductive anatomy and physiology. Three clinically important conditions, pre-ovulatory or follicular stasis, post-ovulatory dystocia, and cloacal prolapse, are also explored in detail.

Article 

Central Venous Catheter Placement in Chelonians

Long-term vascular access is difficult to obtain and maintain in chelonians. Fortunately, central venous catheters provide flexibility and length to avoid catheter dislodgement. Central lines are an effective tool that allow serial blood measurements and can be used for anesthesia administration, intravenous drug delivery, blood product transfusions, and continuous fluid therapy or continuous rate infusions.This photo tutorial article describes this simple technique step-by-step.

Article  Video  Webinar 

Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits

This free, R.A.C.E.-approved continuing education webinar, Emergency and Critical Care of Rabbits, was presented by Charly Pignon, DVM, DECZM (Small Mammal) on November 7, 2018. Lecture topics of this webinar recording include emergency triage, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, analgesia, fluid therapy, and critical care nutrition.

Article  Video 

2018 Avian Practitioner of the Year

Forty-five exceptional avian veterinarians from all around the world were nominated for the 2018 T.J. Lafeber Avian Practitioner of the Year. The independent Selection Committee narrowed this list to six finalists and the Award recipient, Dr. Robert Doneley, was announced during the Plenary Session at the 2018 ExoticsCon.

Article  Information sheet 

Basic Information Sheet: Virginia Opossum

The Virginia opossum is the only marsupial native to North America. This New World species is correctly called an “opossum” as opposed to the Old World “possum”. This information sheet reviews natural history, conservation status, and taxonomy, as well as a number of clinically relevant information including (but not limited to) diet, housing, behavior, normal physiologic data and anatomy, restraint, preventive medicine, zoonoses, and important medical conditions seen in the opossum.

Article  Case Study 

AEMV-Lafeber Case Report: Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism and Cholangiohepatitis in a Guinea Pig

A 3-year old intact male guinea pig was presented on emergency for suspected bloat and with a history of chronic hair loss. Clinical examination revealed non-pruritic symmetric truncal alopecia, thin skin, severe cachexia, and an abdominal fluid wave. Alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, leukocytes (neutrophils), bilirubin, and serum cortisol were markedly elevated. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed peritoneal effusion, cholestasis, and cholelithiasis. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed based on…

Article  Case Study 

AEMV-Lafeber Case Report: Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus in a Guinea Pig

An adult intact female guinea pig was presented with dysorexia, exhaustion and weight loss. Radiographic and ultrasound findings demonstrated a severe gas dilatation of the stomach, severe gallbladder distension, and abnormalities on the organ topography. On laparotomy, a 180-degree gastric dilatation and volvulus was noticed with a gallbladder obstruction, hepatic lipidosis, and adhesions between the bowels…

Article  Case Study 

AEMV-Lafeber Case Report: Budd-Chiari-Like Syndrome in a Domestic Rabbit

An eleven year old male neutered rex rabbit presented with lethargy and inappetence of two days duration, and an acute episode of vestibular ataxia. Anemia and elevations in plasma alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase were evident. Abdominal ultrasound revealed questionable, diffuse hepatomegaly. Computed tomography revealed hepatic venous congestion, severe dilation of the pre-hepatic caudal vena cava, and bicavitary effusion, consistent with Budd-Chiari-like syndrome. Turbulent blood flow within the dilated segment of the caudal vena cava was present on spectral Doppler evaluation. Fine needle aspirate and cytology of the liver revealed necrosis with no evidence of infectious organisms…

Article  Case Study 

AEMV-Lafeber Case Report: Multiple Drug Resistant Staphylococcus Infection, Post Spay in a Domestic Rabbit

A female, spayed miniature lop rabbit presented 1-week post spay with marked subcutaneous swelling along the entire length of the surgical incision. Subsequent debridement of the abscess and closure of the incision site was somewhat unsuccessful, with the patient returning for another debridement procedure, after which the wound was left open for continued flushing and debridement. Culture and sensitivity of the purulent material grew a multi-drug resistant Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus.

Article  Case Study 

AEMV-Lafeber Case Report: Hyperthyroidism Treated with Radiation Therapy (I-131) in Two Guinea Pigs

Two guinea pigs suspected of having hyperthyroidism based on weight loss, presence of a cervical mass, and elevated total thyroxine (TT4) levels were confirmed to have active thyroid masses via scintigraphy with Technetium-99 and treated with radioactive iodine therapy (I¹³¹). Both patients responded initially with weight gain and a decrease in the TT4. The purpose of this case series is to describe the use of scintigraphy to aid in confirming a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, as well as to show the benefits and effectiveness of using radioactive iodine therapy (I¹³¹) to treat hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs in order to provide the best treatment protocol.

Article  Case Study 

AEMV-Lafeber Case Report: Endometrial Venous Aneurysm in a Lionhead Rabbit

A 1-year-old female intact lionhead rabbit was referred for a history of hematuria, bloody vaginal discharge, anorexia, and lethargy unresponsive to antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications. Based upon physical examination, radiographs and abdominal ultrasonography a uterine mass was suspected. Severe regenerative anemia secondary to blood loss was diagnosed and the rabbit was administered a whole blood transfusion prior to surgical intervention. Abdominal exploratory with ovariohysterectomy revealed…

Article 

Capnometry in Exotic Animal Species

Capnometry measures the maximum value of carbon dioxide (CO2) obtained at the end of expiration or end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2). There is good correlation between ETCO2 and arterial CO2 in birds and mammals and capnography can be used as a reliable tool to evaluate the adequacy of ventilation in these species. Capnography can only be used to identify trends in reptiles because of cardiac shunting of blood past the reptilian lungs.

Article 

Monitoring Vital Signs in Exotic Animal Species

Even the most steadfast and seasoned veterinary anesthetist can find themselves intimidated by exotic animal patients. Standard veterinary anesthesia monitors are not designed to read the extremely high (or extremely low) heart rates and respiratory rates of some exotic animal patients. Despite these challenges, valuable information can be gathered from monitoring tools as well as hands-on techniques. Essential vital signs, such as heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate and depth, body temperature, and mucous membrane color should all be evaluated.

Article 

Blood Pressure Monitoring in Exotic Animal Species

Arterial blood pressure is a function of heart rate, blood volume, stroke volume, and arterial compliance. Indirect arterial blood pressure is most commonly measured by Doppler ultrasound or non-invasive oscillometric monitors. What are the limitations of indirect blood pressure measurements in exotic animal patients? How is this technique unique in exotic companion mammals when compared to dogs and cats? How is this technique performed in birds and can this procedure be used in reptiles?

Article 

Electrocardiography in Exotic Animal Species

Electrocardiography can be used to detect and diagnose arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, particularly during long-term anesthesia. How are leads attached to exotic animal patients? And what is the normal appearance of normal electrocardiogram tracings in birds or reptiles?

Article 

Pulse Oximetry in Exotic Animal Species

Heart rate and oxygenation should ideally be monitored during every anesthetic event. Patient size can limit the accuracy of pulse oximetry readings in exotic companion mammals and this technique has not been validated in birds or reptiles, however trends during the course of anesthesia can still provide useful clues to patient clinical status.

Article 

Understanding Reptile Dental Anatomy: Clinical Applications

Reptile dentition tends to be relatively uniform with a simple, conical shape. Most reptile teeth are loosely attached with the dental attachment most superficial in acrodontic species. Tooth loss and replacement is a normal occurrence in reptile species with pleurodont dentition, which includes snakes, and many lizards. Take special care when handling reptiles with acrodont dentition as teeth will not be replaced when infected or fractured. Additionally, periodontal disease is common in captive lizards with acrodont dentition such as bearded dragons and chameleons. Periodontal disease is an insidious condition. As plaque formation builds and gingivitis worsens, many reptiles will continue to eat. The owner may not observe problems until disease is quite advanced. Feeding lizards an unnatural, soft diet is believed to promote plaque development and the development of periodontal disease.